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Title: Lowering NOx and PM Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Water Emulsions

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC); National Transportation Research Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1076879
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ASABE Annual International Meeting, Portland, OR, USA, 20060708, 20060712
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Kass, Michael D, Swartz, Matthew M, Huff, Shean P, Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur, Lee, Doh-Won, Storey, John Morse, and Wagner, Robert M. Lowering NOx and PM Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Water Emulsions. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Kass, Michael D, Swartz, Matthew M, Huff, Shean P, Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur, Lee, Doh-Won, Storey, John Morse, & Wagner, Robert M. Lowering NOx and PM Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Water Emulsions. United States.
Kass, Michael D, Swartz, Matthew M, Huff, Shean P, Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur, Lee, Doh-Won, Storey, John Morse, and Wagner, Robert M. Sun . "Lowering NOx and PM Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Water Emulsions". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1076879,
title = {Lowering NOx and PM Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine with Biodiesel-Water Emulsions},
author = {Kass, Michael D and Swartz, Matthew M and Huff, Shean P and Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur and Lee, Doh-Won and Storey, John Morse and Wagner, Robert M},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogatemore » fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.« less
  • Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles.more » Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.« less
  • This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional dieselmore » combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.« less
  • Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.
  • Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in lightmore » of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.« less