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Title: FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

Abstract

This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, andmore » subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When the scCO2 was released from the reactor, less than 60% of the injected lighter compounds (benzene, toluene) were transported through dry sand column by the CO2, while more than 90% of the heavier organics were trapped in the sand column. For wet sand columns, most (80% to 100%) of the organic compounds injected into the sand column passed through, except for naphthalene which was substantial removed from the CO2 within the column. A spectrophotometric method was developed to measure pH in brines in contact with scCO2. This method provides an alternative to fragile glass pH electrodes and thermodynamic modeling approaches for estimating pH. The method was tested in simulated reservoir fluids (CO2–NaCl–H2O) at different temperatures, pressures, and ionic strength, and the results were compared with other experimental studies and geochemical models. Measured pH values were generally in agreement with the models, but inconsistencies were present between some of the models.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1057367
Report Number(s):
PNNL-21802
AA3030100
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
carbon sequestration, geologic carbon sequestration

Citation Formats

Cantrell, Kirk J, Shao, Hongbo, Thompson, C J, Zhong, Lirong, Jung, Hun Bok, and Um, Wooyong. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1057367.
Cantrell, Kirk J, Shao, Hongbo, Thompson, C J, Zhong, Lirong, Jung, Hun Bok, & Um, Wooyong. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1057367
Cantrell, Kirk J, Shao, Hongbo, Thompson, C J, Zhong, Lirong, Jung, Hun Bok, and Um, Wooyong. Tue . "FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1057367. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1057367.
@article{osti_1057367,
title = {FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration},
author = {Cantrell, Kirk J and Shao, Hongbo and Thompson, C J and Zhong, Lirong and Jung, Hun Bok and Um, Wooyong},
abstractNote = {This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When the scCO2 was released from the reactor, less than 60% of the injected lighter compounds (benzene, toluene) were transported through dry sand column by the CO2, while more than 90% of the heavier organics were trapped in the sand column. For wet sand columns, most (80% to 100%) of the organic compounds injected into the sand column passed through, except for naphthalene which was substantial removed from the CO2 within the column. A spectrophotometric method was developed to measure pH in brines in contact with scCO2. This method provides an alternative to fragile glass pH electrodes and thermodynamic modeling approaches for estimating pH. The method was tested in simulated reservoir fluids (CO2–NaCl–H2O) at different temperatures, pressures, and ionic strength, and the results were compared with other experimental studies and geochemical models. Measured pH values were generally in agreement with the models, but inconsistencies were present between some of the models.},
doi = {10.2172/1057367},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1057367}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}