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Title: Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement

Abstract

National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems using NIST traceable sources. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is the key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included the quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, the camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injectionmore » device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Nevada Test Site/National Security Technologies, LLC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1055486
Report Number(s):
DOE/NV/25946-1306
Journal ID: ISSN 0885-7156; applab
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC52-06NA25946
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Powder Diffraction
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 02; Conference: Denver X-ray Conference 2011, August 2011, Denver, CO; Journal ID: ISSN 0885-7156
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; x-ray, calibration

Citation Formats

Haugh, Michael J., Charest, Michael R., Ross, Patrick W., Lee, Joshua J., Schneider, Marilyn B., Palmer, Nathan E., and Teruya, Alan T. Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1017/S0885715612000413.
Haugh, Michael J., Charest, Michael R., Ross, Patrick W., Lee, Joshua J., Schneider, Marilyn B., Palmer, Nathan E., & Teruya, Alan T. Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement. United States. doi:10.1017/S0885715612000413.
Haugh, Michael J., Charest, Michael R., Ross, Patrick W., Lee, Joshua J., Schneider, Marilyn B., Palmer, Nathan E., and Teruya, Alan T. Fri . "Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement". United States. doi:10.1017/S0885715612000413.
@article{osti_1055486,
title = {Calibration of X-ray imaging devices for accurate intensity measurement},
author = {Haugh, Michael J. and Charest, Michael R. and Ross, Patrick W. and Lee, Joshua J. and Schneider, Marilyn B. and Palmer, Nathan E. and Teruya, Alan T.},
abstractNote = {National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems using NIST traceable sources. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is the key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included the quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, the camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.},
doi = {10.1017/S0885715612000413},
journal = {Powder Diffraction},
issn = {0885-7156},
number = 02,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {6}
}