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Title: ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

Abstract

Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore,more » without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains nuclear energy as a feasible option to meet the nation's needs for energy and environmental safety. In addition, the outcome of the proposed study will have a broader impact on other processes that utilize spouted beds, such as coal gasification, granulation, drying, catalytic reactions, etc.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Dr. Pratim Biswas (Washington University in St. Louis) and Dr. Muthanna Al-Dahhan (Missouri University of Science & Technology)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1054926
Report Number(s):
Final Technical Report
DOE Contract Number:  
FC07-07ID14822
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; TRISO fuel particle, Spouted bed

Citation Formats

Biswas, Pratim, and Al-Dahhan, Muthanna. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.2172/1054926.
Biswas, Pratim, & Al-Dahhan, Muthanna. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES. United States. doi:10.2172/1054926.
Biswas, Pratim, and Al-Dahhan, Muthanna. Thu . "ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES". United States. doi:10.2172/1054926. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1054926.
@article{osti_1054926,
title = {ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES},
author = {Biswas, Pratim and Al-Dahhan, Muthanna},
abstractNote = {Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains nuclear energy as a feasible option to meet the nation's needs for energy and environmental safety. In addition, the outcome of the proposed study will have a broader impact on other processes that utilize spouted beds, such as coal gasification, granulation, drying, catalytic reactions, etc.},
doi = {10.2172/1054926},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}