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Title: Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

Abstract

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to formmore » satisfactory fuel kernels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1053967
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-11-22749
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115
DOE Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear Materials; Journal Volume: 432; Journal Issue: 1-3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NGNP + TDO + VHTR + R&D + Fuel + AGR-1 + AG

Citation Formats

Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., and Marshall, Doug W. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., & Marshall, Doug W. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., and Marshall, Doug W. 2013. "Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
@article{osti_1053967,
title = {Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production},
author = {Baker, M. P. and King, J. C. and Gorman, B. P. and Marshall, Doug W.},
abstractNote = {Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
number = 1-3,
volume = 432,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 1
}
  • A thermomechanical assessment of the LWR application of TRISO fuel with UN kernels was performed. Fission product release under operational and transient temperature conditions was determined by extrapolation from fission product recoil calculations and limited data from irradiated UN pellets. Both fission recoil and diffusive release were considered and internal particle pressures computed for both 650 and 800 um diameter kernels as a function of buffer layer thickness. These pressures were used in conjunction with a finite element program to compute the radial and tangential stresses generated within a TRISO particle undergoing burnup. Creep and swelling of the inner andmore » outer pyrolytic carbon layers were included in the analyses. A measure of reliability of the TRISO particle was obtained by computing the probability of survival of the SiC barrier layer and the maximum tensile stress generated in the pyrolytic carbon layers from internal pressure and thermomechanics of the layers. These reliability estimates were obtained as functions of the kernel diameter, buffer layer thickness, and pyrolytic carbon layer thickness. The value of the probability of survival at the end of irradiation was inversely proportional to the maximum pressure.« less
  • A thermomechanical assessment of the LWR application of TRISO fuel with UN kernels was performed. Fission product release under operational and transient temperature conditions was determined by extrapolation from range calculations and limited data from irradiated UN pellets. Both fission recoil and diffusive release were considered and internal particle pressures computed for both 650 and 800 m diameter kernels as a function of buffer layer thickness. These pressures were used in conjunction with a finite element program to compute the radial and tangential stresses generated with a TRISO particle as a function of fluence. Creep and swelling of the innermore » and outer pyrolytic carbon layers were included in the analyses. A measure of reliability of the TRISO particle was obtained by measuring the probability of survival of the SiC barrier layer and the maximum tensile stress generated in the pyrolytic carbon layers as a function of fluence. These reliability estimates were obtained as functions of the kernel diameter, buffer layer thickness, and pyrolytic carbon layer thickness. The value of the probability of survival at the end of irradiation was inversely proportional to the maximum pressure.« less
  • VLA 1.4 GHz ({sigma}{approx} 0.012 mJy) and MIPS 24 and 70 {mu}m ({sigma}{approx} 0.02 and 1.7 mJy, respectively) observations covering the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field are combined with an extensive multiwavelength data set to study the evolution of the infrared (IR)-radio relation at intermediate and high redshift. With {approx}4500 sources-of which {approx}30% have spectroscopic redshifts-the current sample is significantly larger than previous ones used for the same purpose. Both monochromatic IR/radio flux ratios (q {sub 24} and q {sub 70}), as well as the ratio of the total IR and the 1.4 GHz luminosity (q {sub TIR}), are usedmore » as indicators for the IR/radio properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a sample jointly selected at IR and radio wavelengths in order to reduce selection biases, we provide firm support for previous findings that the IR-radio relation remains unchanged out to at least z{approx} 1.4. Moreover, based on data from {approx}150 objects we also find that the local relation likely still holds at zin [2.5, 5]. At redshift z< 1.4, we observe that radio-quiet AGNs populate the locus of the IR-radio relation in similar numbers as star-forming sources. In our analysis, we employ the methods of survival analysis in order to ensure a statistically sound treatment of flux limits arising from non-detections. We determine the observed shift in average IR/radio properties of IR- and radio-selected populations and show that it can reconcile apparently discrepant measurements presented in the literature. Finally, we also investigate variations of the IR/radio ratio with IR and radio luminosity and find that it hardly varies with IR luminosity but is a decreasing function of radio luminosity.« less