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Title: Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

Abstract

Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to formmore » satisfactory fuel kernels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1053967
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-11-22749
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115
DOE Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear Materials; Journal Volume: 432; Journal Issue: 1-3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NGNP + TDO + VHTR + R&D + Fuel + AGR-1 + AG

Citation Formats

Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., and Marshall, Doug W. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., & Marshall, Doug W. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
Baker, M. P., King, J. C., Gorman, B. P., and Marshall, Doug W. Tue . "Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047.
@article{osti_1053967,
title = {Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production},
author = {Baker, M. P. and King, J. C. and Gorman, B. P. and Marshall, Doug W.},
abstractNote = {Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2012.07.047},
journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
number = 1-3,
volume = 432,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}