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Title: Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

Abstract

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials tomore » address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. A123 Systems, Inc.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE EE Office of Vehicle Technologies (EE-2G)
OSTI Identifier:
1053837
Report Number(s):
NFE-10-02757
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; lithium ion batteries; electric vehicle batteries

Citation Formats

Wood, III, D. L., and Yoon, S. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.2172/1053837.
Wood, III, D. L., & Yoon, S. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials. United States. doi:10.2172/1053837.
Wood, III, D. L., and Yoon, S. Thu . "Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials". United States. doi:10.2172/1053837. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1053837.
@article{osti_1053837,
title = {Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials},
author = {Wood, III, D. L. and Yoon, S.},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.},
doi = {10.2172/1053837},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {10}
}