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Title: Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films

Abstract

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. (NREL)
  2. (
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1050754
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Adv. Eng. Mater.
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: (9) ; 09, 2012; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ACTIVATION ENERGY; ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE; AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES; FILMS; IRON; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; PARTIAL PRESSURE; PYRITE; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Berry, Nicholas, Cheng, Ming, Perkins, Craig L., Limpinsel, Moritz, Hemminger, John C., Law, Matt, and UCI). Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201200043.
Berry, Nicholas, Cheng, Ming, Perkins, Craig L., Limpinsel, Moritz, Hemminger, John C., Law, Matt, & UCI). Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201200043.
Berry, Nicholas, Cheng, Ming, Perkins, Craig L., Limpinsel, Moritz, Hemminger, John C., Law, Matt, and UCI). Tue . "Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201200043.
@article{osti_1050754,
title = {Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films},
author = {Berry, Nicholas and Cheng, Ming and Perkins, Craig L. and Limpinsel, Moritz and Hemminger, John C. and Law, Matt and UCI)},
abstractNote = {Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201200043},
journal = {Adv. Eng. Mater.},
issn = {1614-6832},
number = (9) ; 09, 2012,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {10}
}