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Title: The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

Abstract

Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milkmore » fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Harvard-Med)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1048576
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: FASEB J.; Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: (8) ; 08, 2012
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ADHESION; CALCIUM IONS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; FATS; FLEXIBILITY; GLYCOPROTEINS; GROWTH FACTORS; IMMUNITY; MACROPHAGES; MILK; MUTAGENESIS; PHAGOCYTES

Citation Formats

Schürpf, Thomas, Chen, Qiang, Liu, Jin-huan, Wang, Rui, Springer, Timothy A., and Wang, Jia-huai. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1096/fj.11-202036.
Schürpf, Thomas, Chen, Qiang, Liu, Jin-huan, Wang, Rui, Springer, Timothy A., & Wang, Jia-huai. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding. United States. doi:10.1096/fj.11-202036.
Schürpf, Thomas, Chen, Qiang, Liu, Jin-huan, Wang, Rui, Springer, Timothy A., and Wang, Jia-huai. Tue . "The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding". United States. doi:10.1096/fj.11-202036.
@article{osti_1048576,
title = {The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding},
author = {Schürpf, Thomas and Chen, Qiang and Liu, Jin-huan and Wang, Rui and Springer, Timothy A. and Wang, Jia-huai},
abstractNote = {Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.},
doi = {10.1096/fj.11-202036},
journal = {FASEB J.},
number = (8) ; 08, 2012,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 13 00:00:00 EST 2012},
month = {Tue Nov 13 00:00:00 EST 2012}
}
  • The dynamics of a single tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adsorbing onto negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution was studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the adsorbed Na{sup +} ions play an important role in determining the binding geometry of RGD. With an initial 'horseshoe' configuration, the charged side groups (COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}) of the peptide are able to interact with the surface through direct hydrogen bonds (H bonds) in the very early stage of adsorption. The Na{sup +} ions approach the positively charged Arg side chain, competing with the Arg side chainmore » for adsorption to the negatively charged hydroxyl oxygen. In coordination with the structural adjustment of the peptide, the Arg residue is driven to detach from the rutile surface. In contrast, the Na+ ions in close proximity to the negatively charged Asp side chain contribute to the binding of the COO{sup -} group on the surface, helping the carboxyl oxygen not involved in COO{sup -}-surface H bonds to orientate toward the hydroxyl hydrogens. Once both carboxyl oxygens form enough H bonds with the hydroxyl hydrogens, the redundant ions move toward a more favorable adsorption site.« less
  • L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) is a transmembrane cell adhesion molecule initially defined as a promigratory molecule in the developing nervous system. L1 is also overexpressed in a variety of human carcinomas and is associated with bad prognosis. In carcinoma cell lines L1 augments cell motility and metastasis, tumor growth in nude mice and induces expression of L1-dependent genes. It is not known whether L1-signaling requires ligand binding. The RGD motif in the sixth Ig domain of L1 is a binding site for integrins. In the present study we analyzed the role of RGDs in L1-signaling using site-directed mutagenesis combinedmore » with antibody blocking studies. We observed that L1-RGE expressing HEK293 cells showed reduced cell-cell binding, cell motility, invasiveness and tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. The RGE-mutation impaired L1-dependent gene regulation and antibodies to {alpha}v{beta}5 integrin had similar effects. Mutant L1 was unable to translocate to the nucleus. Our findings highlight the importance of the RGD site in L1 for human tumors and suggest that nuclear signaling of L1 is dependent on integrins.« less
  • Here the binding of a negatively charged residue, aspartic acid (Asp) in tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, onto a negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution, containing divalent (Mg 2+, Ca 2+, or Sr 2+) or monovalent (Na +, K +, or Rb +) cations, was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that ionic radii and charges will significantly affect the hydration, adsorption geometry, and distance of cations from the rutile surface, thereby regulating the Asp/rutile binding mode. The adsorption strength of monovalent cations on the rutile surface in the order Na + > K + >more » Rb + shows a “reverse” lyotropic trend, while the divalent cations on the same surface exhibit a “regular” lyotropic behavior with decreasing crystallographic radii (the adsorption strength of divalent cations: Sr 2+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+). The Asp side chain in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl solutions remains stably H-bonded to the surface hydroxyls and the inner-sphere adsorbed compensating monovalent cations act as a bridge between the COO group and the rutile, helping to “trap” the negatively charged Asp side chain on the negatively charged surface. In contrast, the mediating divalent cations actively participate in linking the COO– group to the rutile surface; thus the Asp side chain can remain stably on the rutile (110) surface, even if it is not involved in any hydrogen bonds with the surface hydroxyls. Inner- and outer-sphere geometries are all possible mediation modes for divalent cations in bridging the peptide to the rutile surface.« less
  • The activity of integrin LFA-1 ({alpha}{sub L}{beta}{sub 2}) to its ligand ICAM-1 is regulated through the conformational changes of its ligand-binding domain, the I domain of {alpha}{sub L} chain, from an inactive, low-affinity closed form (LA), to an intermediate-affinity form (IA), and then finally, to a high-affinity open form (HA). A ligand-mimetic human monoclonal antibody AL-57 (activated LFA-1 clone 57) was identified by phage display to specifically recognize the affinity-upregulated I domain. Here, we describe the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of AL-57 in complex with IA, as well as in its unligated form. We discuss the structural featuresmore » conferring AL-57's strong selectivity for the high affinity, open conformation of the I domain. The AL-57-binding site overlaps the ICAM-1 binding site on the I domain. Furthermore, an antibody Asp mimics an ICAM Glu by forming a coordination to the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). The structure also reveals better shape complementarity and a more hydrophobic interacting interface in AL-57 binding than in ICAM-1 binding. The results explain AL-57's antagonistic mimicry of LFA-1's natural ligands, the ICAM molecules.« less
  • Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissuemore » retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results. Integrin ?v?3 specificity was demonstrated by successful blocking of tumor uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) at 1 h postinjection. The highest absorbed radiation doses determined for the human reference adult were received by the urinary bladder wall (0.263 mGy/MBq), kidneys (0.0298 mGy/MBq), and liver (0.0244 mGy/MBq). Assuming 0.5-g U87MG glioma tumors in man, we calculated an absorbed dose of 65.3 mGy/MBq (242 rad/mCi) following a single injection of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2. In conclusion, the high integrin avidity and favorable biokinetics make 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 a promising agent for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging therapy of integrin-positive tumors.« less