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Title: Theory, modeling and simulation of superconducting qubits

Abstract

We analyze the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system coupled with a thermal bath and external electromagnetic fields. Using the evolution equations for the set of Heisenberg operators that describe the whole system, we derive an expression for the resonator field, that includes the resonator-drive, the resonator-bath, and resonator-qubit interactions. The renormalization of the resonator frequency, caused by the qubit-resonator interaction, is accounted for. Using the solutions for the resonator field, we derive the equation that describes the qubit dynamics. The dependence of the qubit evolution during the measurement time on the fidelity of a single-shot measurement is studied. The relation between the fidelity and measurement time is shown explicitly. We proposed a novel adiabatic method for the phase qubit measurement. The method utilizes a low-frequency, quasi-classical resonator inductively coupled to the qubit. The resonator modulates the qubit energy, and the back reaction of the qubit causes a shift in the phase of the resonator. The resonator phase shift can be used to determine the qubit state. We have simulated this measurement taking into the account the energy levels outside the phase qubit manifold. We have shown that, for qubit frequencies in the range of 8-12GHZ, a resonator frequency of 500more » MHz and a measurement time of 100 ns, the phase difference between the two qubit states is greater than 0.2 rad. This phase difference exceeds the measurement uncertainty, and can be detected using a classical phase-meter. A fidelity of 0.9999 can be achieved for a relaxation time of 0.5 ms. We also model and simulate a microstrip-SQUID amplifier of frequency about 500 MHz, which could be used to amplify the resonator oscillations in the phase qubit adiabatic measurement. The voltage gain and the amplifier noise temperature are calculated. We simulate the preparation of a generalized Bell state and compute the relaxation times required for achieving high fidelities. We consider two capacitively coupled phase qubits similar to that used in the experimental work of R. Bialczak et al. (Nature Physics, 6, 409, 2010). The Bell state was created using a NOT gate and a universal entangling gate. We solved the equation of motion for the density matrix with the Bloch relaxation times, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}. For every qubit we took into consideration all the states in the shallow well including the states outside the qubit manifold. Also we took into consideration unwanted interaction between the qubits during the application of the NOT gate. The NOT gate was implemented using a Gaussian pulse assuming the frequency difference between the two qubits is 200 MHz. An entangling gate was implemented reducing this frequency difference to zero. We have found the optimal parameters for the Gaussian pulse and the optimal duration for the entangling gate. We have shown that the maximum fidelity of 0.99 can be achieved for the minimum relaxation time, T{sub 1} = 1.2 {micro}s, if T{sub 2} = 2T{sub 1}. By slightly increasing the required value of T{sub 1}, one can sharply reduce the required value for T{sub 2}.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  2. INSTIT OF PHYSICS, KIEV
  3. LLNL
  4. POLYTECHNIC INSTIT OF NYU
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1046563
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-11-00279; LA-UR-11-279
TRN: US1203793
DOE Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2011 IARPA Coherent Superconducting Qubits Program Review ; January 20, 2011 ; San Diego, CA
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; AMPLIFIERS; DENSITY MATRIX; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; ENERGY LEVELS; OSCILLATIONS; PHASE SHIFT; PHYSICS; QUBITS; RELAXATION TIME; RENORMALIZATION; RESONATORS; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Berman, Gennady P, Kamenev, Dmitry I, Chumak, Alexander, Kinion, Carin, and Tsifrinovich, Vladimir. Theory, modeling and simulation of superconducting qubits. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Berman, Gennady P, Kamenev, Dmitry I, Chumak, Alexander, Kinion, Carin, & Tsifrinovich, Vladimir. Theory, modeling and simulation of superconducting qubits. United States.
Berman, Gennady P, Kamenev, Dmitry I, Chumak, Alexander, Kinion, Carin, and Tsifrinovich, Vladimir. Thu . "Theory, modeling and simulation of superconducting qubits". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1046563.
@article{osti_1046563,
title = {Theory, modeling and simulation of superconducting qubits},
author = {Berman, Gennady P and Kamenev, Dmitry I and Chumak, Alexander and Kinion, Carin and Tsifrinovich, Vladimir},
abstractNote = {We analyze the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system coupled with a thermal bath and external electromagnetic fields. Using the evolution equations for the set of Heisenberg operators that describe the whole system, we derive an expression for the resonator field, that includes the resonator-drive, the resonator-bath, and resonator-qubit interactions. The renormalization of the resonator frequency, caused by the qubit-resonator interaction, is accounted for. Using the solutions for the resonator field, we derive the equation that describes the qubit dynamics. The dependence of the qubit evolution during the measurement time on the fidelity of a single-shot measurement is studied. The relation between the fidelity and measurement time is shown explicitly. We proposed a novel adiabatic method for the phase qubit measurement. The method utilizes a low-frequency, quasi-classical resonator inductively coupled to the qubit. The resonator modulates the qubit energy, and the back reaction of the qubit causes a shift in the phase of the resonator. The resonator phase shift can be used to determine the qubit state. We have simulated this measurement taking into the account the energy levels outside the phase qubit manifold. We have shown that, for qubit frequencies in the range of 8-12GHZ, a resonator frequency of 500 MHz and a measurement time of 100 ns, the phase difference between the two qubit states is greater than 0.2 rad. This phase difference exceeds the measurement uncertainty, and can be detected using a classical phase-meter. A fidelity of 0.9999 can be achieved for a relaxation time of 0.5 ms. We also model and simulate a microstrip-SQUID amplifier of frequency about 500 MHz, which could be used to amplify the resonator oscillations in the phase qubit adiabatic measurement. The voltage gain and the amplifier noise temperature are calculated. We simulate the preparation of a generalized Bell state and compute the relaxation times required for achieving high fidelities. We consider two capacitively coupled phase qubits similar to that used in the experimental work of R. Bialczak et al. (Nature Physics, 6, 409, 2010). The Bell state was created using a NOT gate and a universal entangling gate. We solved the equation of motion for the density matrix with the Bloch relaxation times, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}. For every qubit we took into consideration all the states in the shallow well including the states outside the qubit manifold. Also we took into consideration unwanted interaction between the qubits during the application of the NOT gate. The NOT gate was implemented using a Gaussian pulse assuming the frequency difference between the two qubits is 200 MHz. An entangling gate was implemented reducing this frequency difference to zero. We have found the optimal parameters for the Gaussian pulse and the optimal duration for the entangling gate. We have shown that the maximum fidelity of 0.99 can be achieved for the minimum relaxation time, T{sub 1} = 1.2 {micro}s, if T{sub 2} = 2T{sub 1}. By slightly increasing the required value of T{sub 1}, one can sharply reduce the required value for T{sub 2}.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {1}
}

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