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Title: High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments

Abstract

Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason formore » efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Advanced Light Source Division
OSTI Identifier:
1045927
Report Number(s):
LBNL-4992E
TRN: US1203695
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: SPIE 2010 Optics and Photonics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; DEPOSITION; DIFFRACTION; EFFICIENCY; ETCHING; FABRICATION; OPTICS; RESOLUTION; SILICON; SIMULATION; SUBSTRATES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VECTORS; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY; diffraction grating, diffraction efficiency, blazed grating, multilayer coating, scanning beam interference lithography, wet anisotropic etch, EUV, soft x-rays, TEM

Citation Formats

Voronov, Dmitriy, Ahn, Minseung, Anderson, Erik, Cambie, Rossana, Chang, Chih-Hao, Goray, Leonid, Gullikson, Eric, Heilmann, Ralf, Salmassi, Farhad, Schattenburg, Mark, Warwick, Tony, Yashchuk, Valeriy, and Padmore, Howard. High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Voronov, Dmitriy, Ahn, Minseung, Anderson, Erik, Cambie, Rossana, Chang, Chih-Hao, Goray, Leonid, Gullikson, Eric, Heilmann, Ralf, Salmassi, Farhad, Schattenburg, Mark, Warwick, Tony, Yashchuk, Valeriy, & Padmore, Howard. High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments. United States.
Voronov, Dmitriy, Ahn, Minseung, Anderson, Erik, Cambie, Rossana, Chang, Chih-Hao, Goray, Leonid, Gullikson, Eric, Heilmann, Ralf, Salmassi, Farhad, Schattenburg, Mark, Warwick, Tony, Yashchuk, Valeriy, and Padmore, Howard. Tue . "High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1045927.
@article{osti_1045927,
title = {High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments},
author = {Voronov, Dmitriy and Ahn, Minseung and Anderson, Erik and Cambie, Rossana and Chang, Chih-Hao and Goray, Leonid and Gullikson, Eric and Heilmann, Ralf and Salmassi, Farhad and Schattenburg, Mark and Warwick, Tony and Yashchuk, Valeriy and Padmore, Howard},
abstractNote = {Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {7}
}

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