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Title: LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report

Abstract

The LCLS-II New Instruments workshops chaired by Phil Heimann and Jerry Hastings were held on March 19-22, 2012 at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The goal of the workshops was to identify the most exciting science and corresponding parameters which will help define the LCLS-II instrumentation. This report gives a synopsis of the proposed investigations and an account of the workshop. Scientists from around the world have provided short descriptions of the scientific opportunities they envision at LCLS-II. The workshops focused on four broadly defined science areas: biology, materials sciences, chemistry and atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO). Below we summarize the identified science opportunities in the four areas. The frontiers of structural biology lie in solving the structures of large macromolecular biological systems. Most large protein assemblies are inherently difficult to crystallize due to their numerous degrees of freedom. Serial femtosecond protein nanocrystallography, using the 'diffraction-before-destruction' approach to outrun radiation damage has been very successfully pioneered at LCLS and diffraction patterns were obtained from some of the smallest protein crystals ever. The combination of femtosecond x-ray pulses of high intensity and nanosized protein crystals avoids the radiation damage encountered by conventional x-ray crystallography with focused beams and opens themore » door for atomic structure determinations of the previously largely inaccessible class of membrane proteins that are notoriously difficult to crystallize. The obtained structures will allow the identification of key protein functions and help in understanding the origin and control of diseases. Three dimensional coherent x-ray imaging at somewhat lower resolution may be used for larger objects such as viruses. The chemistry research areas of primary focus are the predictive understanding of catalytic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on photo- and heterogeneous catalysis. Of particular interest is the efficient conversion of light to electrical or chemical energy, which requires understanding the non-adiabatic dynamics of electronic excited states. Ultrafast x-ray scattering presents an excellent opportunity to investigate structural dynamics of molecular systems with atomic resolution, and x-ray scattering and spectroscopy present an excellent opportunity to investigating the dynamics of the electronic charge distribution. Harnessing solar energy to generate fuels, either indirectly with photovoltaics and electrochemical catalysis or directly with photocatalysts, presents a critical technological challenge that will require the use of forefront scientific tools such as ultrafast x-rays. At the center of this technical challenge is the rational design of efficient and cost effective catalysts. Important materials science opportunities relate to information technology applications, in particular the transport and storage of information on increasingly smaller length- and faster time-scales. Of interest are the understanding of the intrinsic size limits associated with the storage of information bits and the speed limits of information or bit processing. Key questions revolve about how electronic charges and spins of materials can be manipulated by electric and magnetic fields. This requires the exploration of speed limits subject to the fundamental conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momentum and the different coupling of polar electric and axial magnetic fields to charge and spin. Of interest are novel composite materials, including molecular systems combining multi electric and magnetic functionality. Ultrafast x-rays offer the required probing speed, can probe either the charge or spin properties through polarization control and through scattering and spectroscopy cover the entire energy-time-momentum-distance phase space. In the field of atomic and molecular science, LCLS II promises to elucidate the fundamental interactions among electrons and between electrons and nuclei, and to explore the frontiers of light-matter interactions. The high x-ray intensities unique to LCLS II will allow for highly localized electron excitation and probing at different positions inside a molecule, thereby interrogating the fundamental electron correlations. At the ultimate intensities, a breakdown of our established model of x-ray - matter interaction is predicted, leading to possibly new regimes of plasma physics.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1045206
Report Number(s):
SLAC-R-993
TRN: US1203556
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops, SLAC, Mar 19-22, 2012
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANGULAR MOMENTUM; CATALYSIS; CHARGE DISTRIBUTION; COMPOSITE MATERIALS; CONSERVATION LAWS; DEGREES OF FREEDOM; ELECTRON CORRELATION; EXCITED STATES; FERMILAB ACCELERATOR; HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MEMBRANE PROTEINS; PHASE SPACE; SCATTERING; SOLAR ENERGY; STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER; INST

Citation Formats

Baradaran, Samira, Bergmann, Uwe, Durr, Herrmann, Gaffney, Kelley, Goldstein, Julia, Guehr, Markus, Hastings, Jerome, Heimann, Philip, Lee, Richard, Seibert, Marvin, Stohr, Joachim, and /SLAC. LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report. United States: N. p., 2012. Web.
Baradaran, Samira, Bergmann, Uwe, Durr, Herrmann, Gaffney, Kelley, Goldstein, Julia, Guehr, Markus, Hastings, Jerome, Heimann, Philip, Lee, Richard, Seibert, Marvin, Stohr, Joachim, & /SLAC. LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report. United States.
Baradaran, Samira, Bergmann, Uwe, Durr, Herrmann, Gaffney, Kelley, Goldstein, Julia, Guehr, Markus, Hastings, Jerome, Heimann, Philip, Lee, Richard, Seibert, Marvin, Stohr, Joachim, and /SLAC. Wed . "LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1045206.
@article{osti_1045206,
title = {LCLS-II New Instruments Workshops Report},
author = {Baradaran, Samira and Bergmann, Uwe and Durr, Herrmann and Gaffney, Kelley and Goldstein, Julia and Guehr, Markus and Hastings, Jerome and Heimann, Philip and Lee, Richard and Seibert, Marvin and Stohr, Joachim and /SLAC},
abstractNote = {The LCLS-II New Instruments workshops chaired by Phil Heimann and Jerry Hastings were held on March 19-22, 2012 at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The goal of the workshops was to identify the most exciting science and corresponding parameters which will help define the LCLS-II instrumentation. This report gives a synopsis of the proposed investigations and an account of the workshop. Scientists from around the world have provided short descriptions of the scientific opportunities they envision at LCLS-II. The workshops focused on four broadly defined science areas: biology, materials sciences, chemistry and atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO). Below we summarize the identified science opportunities in the four areas. The frontiers of structural biology lie in solving the structures of large macromolecular biological systems. Most large protein assemblies are inherently difficult to crystallize due to their numerous degrees of freedom. Serial femtosecond protein nanocrystallography, using the 'diffraction-before-destruction' approach to outrun radiation damage has been very successfully pioneered at LCLS and diffraction patterns were obtained from some of the smallest protein crystals ever. The combination of femtosecond x-ray pulses of high intensity and nanosized protein crystals avoids the radiation damage encountered by conventional x-ray crystallography with focused beams and opens the door for atomic structure determinations of the previously largely inaccessible class of membrane proteins that are notoriously difficult to crystallize. The obtained structures will allow the identification of key protein functions and help in understanding the origin and control of diseases. Three dimensional coherent x-ray imaging at somewhat lower resolution may be used for larger objects such as viruses. The chemistry research areas of primary focus are the predictive understanding of catalytic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on photo- and heterogeneous catalysis. Of particular interest is the efficient conversion of light to electrical or chemical energy, which requires understanding the non-adiabatic dynamics of electronic excited states. Ultrafast x-ray scattering presents an excellent opportunity to investigate structural dynamics of molecular systems with atomic resolution, and x-ray scattering and spectroscopy present an excellent opportunity to investigating the dynamics of the electronic charge distribution. Harnessing solar energy to generate fuels, either indirectly with photovoltaics and electrochemical catalysis or directly with photocatalysts, presents a critical technological challenge that will require the use of forefront scientific tools such as ultrafast x-rays. At the center of this technical challenge is the rational design of efficient and cost effective catalysts. Important materials science opportunities relate to information technology applications, in particular the transport and storage of information on increasingly smaller length- and faster time-scales. Of interest are the understanding of the intrinsic size limits associated with the storage of information bits and the speed limits of information or bit processing. Key questions revolve about how electronic charges and spins of materials can be manipulated by electric and magnetic fields. This requires the exploration of speed limits subject to the fundamental conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momentum and the different coupling of polar electric and axial magnetic fields to charge and spin. Of interest are novel composite materials, including molecular systems combining multi electric and magnetic functionality. Ultrafast x-rays offer the required probing speed, can probe either the charge or spin properties through polarization control and through scattering and spectroscopy cover the entire energy-time-momentum-distance phase space. In the field of atomic and molecular science, LCLS II promises to elucidate the fundamental interactions among electrons and between electrons and nuclei, and to explore the frontiers of light-matter interactions. The high x-ray intensities unique to LCLS II will allow for highly localized electron excitation and probing at different positions inside a molecule, thereby interrogating the fundamental electron correlations. At the ultimate intensities, a breakdown of our established model of x-ray - matter interaction is predicted, leading to possibly new regimes of plasma physics.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1045206}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {8}
}

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