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Title: The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis

Abstract

In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may significantly alter other specifications or fuel chemistry. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and to uncover 'hidden' relationships in the data. In this paper, a set of 11 diesel fuels with widely varying properties were run in a simple HCCI engine. Fuel properties and engine performance are examined to identify underlying fuel relationships and to determine the interplay between engine behavior and fuels. Results indicate that fuel efficiency is mainly controlled by a collection of specifications related to density and energy contentmore » and ignition characteristics are controlled mainly by cetane number.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. Rincon Ranch Consulting
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
1043917
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2007 SAE Powertrain and Fluid Systems Conference, Rosemont, IL, USA, 20071029, 20071101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ANTIKNOCK RATINGS; CHEMISTRY; COMPRESSION; DIESEL FUELS; EFFICIENCY; ENGINES; IGNITION; KINETICS; PERFORMANCE; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; SPECIFICATIONS; VOLATILITY; diesel; HCCI; principal component analysis

Citation Formats

Bunting, Bruce G, and Crawford, Robert W. The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Bunting, Bruce G, & Crawford, Robert W. The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis. United States.
Bunting, Bruce G, and Crawford, Robert W. Mon . "The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1043917,
title = {The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Component Analysis},
author = {Bunting, Bruce G and Crawford, Robert W},
abstractNote = {In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may significantly alter other specifications or fuel chemistry. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and to uncover 'hidden' relationships in the data. In this paper, a set of 11 diesel fuels with widely varying properties were run in a simple HCCI engine. Fuel properties and engine performance are examined to identify underlying fuel relationships and to determine the interplay between engine behavior and fuels. Results indicate that fuel efficiency is mainly controlled by a collection of specifications related to density and energy content and ignition characteristics are controlled mainly by cetane number.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improvingmore » combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC). High cetane fuels suffer performance loss due to easier ignition, resulting in lower intake temperatures, which increase HC and CO emissions and result in the need for more advanced combustion phasing. The FACE fuels also varied in T90 temperature and % aromatics, independent of cetane number. T90 temperature was found to have an effect on engine performance when combined with high centane, but % aromatics did not, when evaluated independently of cetane and T90.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • It may be necessary to increase the percentage yield of diesel fuel from crude oil to meet demands if diesel powered passenger cars achieve increased sales penetration. To assess the performance properties of products that might be produced to meet this increased demand, tests were conducted with diesel fuels of varying 10 percent recovered point (365 to 520/sup 0/F) (185 to 271/sup 0/C), 95 percent recovered point (520 to 750/sup 0/F) (271 to 399/sup 0/C) and aromatics content (15 to 40 percent) in U.S. and European light- and heavy-duty engines. The effects on emissions, power and fuel consumption were relativelymore » small indicating that fuels within the range tested provide satisfactory performance.« less
  • A single-cylinder, variable-compression ratio, direct-injection diesel engine was designed and constructed to study the ignition quality of seventeen different test fuels, ranging from the primary reference fuels to a vegetable oil. The objective of the work was to compare the ignition quality rating of the fuels using the standard cetane rating technique to ratings obtained in the test engine. The ignition delay times have been measured as functions of the engine speed, load, and compression ratio. As in the standard cetane rating technique, injection timing was adjusted so that combustion started at top dead center. This was accomplished by adjustingmore » the injection timing as the speed, load, and compression ratio were varied. The resulting data is plotted as the ignition delay times versus compression ratio at the various speed-load conditions.« less