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Title: Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

Abstract

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material withinmore » the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1033467
Report Number(s):
PNNL-19690
AF5805000; TRN: US1200402
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; BULK DENSITY; CHEMISTRY; CHLORIDES; CRUCIBLES; FISSION PRODUCTS; GLASS; HALIDE MINERALS; LITHIUM SILICATES; MELTING; PELLETS; RARE EARTHS; SINTERING; SOL-GEL PROCESS; STABILITY; TESTING; VOLATILITY; WASTE FORMS; WASTES; tellurite, tellurite glasses, halide minerals, cancrinite, sodalite, electrochemical

Citation Formats

Riley, Brian J., Rieck, Bennett T., Crum, Jarrod V., Matyas, Josef, McCloy, John S., Sundaram, S. K., and Vienna, John D. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.2172/1033467.
Riley, Brian J., Rieck, Bennett T., Crum, Jarrod V., Matyas, Josef, McCloy, John S., Sundaram, S. K., & Vienna, John D. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results. United States. doi:10.2172/1033467.
Riley, Brian J., Rieck, Bennett T., Crum, Jarrod V., Matyas, Josef, McCloy, John S., Sundaram, S. K., and Vienna, John D. Sun . "Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results". United States. doi:10.2172/1033467. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1033467.
@article{osti_1033467,
title = {Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results},
author = {Riley, Brian J. and Rieck, Bennett T. and Crum, Jarrod V. and Matyas, Josef and McCloy, John S. and Sundaram, S. K. and Vienna, John D.},
abstractNote = {In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.},
doi = {10.2172/1033467},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {8}
}

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