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Title: Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam

Abstract

The Linac Coherent Light Source is an x-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which is operating at x-ray wavelengths of 20-1.2 Angstrom with peak brightness nearly ten orders of magnitude beyond conventional synchrotron radiation sources. At the low charge operation mode (20 pC), the x-ray pulse length can be <10 fs. In this paper we report our numerical optimization and simulations to produce even shorter x-ray pulses by optimizing the machine and undulator setup at 20 pC charge. In the soft x-ray regime, with combination of slotted-foil or undulator taper, a single spike x-ray pulse is achievable with peak FEL power of a few 10s GW. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray Free electron laser (FEL), has started operation since 2009. With nominal operation charge of 250 pC, the generated x-ray pulse length is from 70 fs to a few hundred fs. This marks the beginning of a new era of ultrashort x-ray sciences. In addition, a low charge (20pC) operation mode has also been established. Since the collective effects are reduced at the low charge mode, we can increase the compression factor and still achieve a few kA peak current. The expectedmore » electron beam and x-ray pulses are less than 10 fs. There are growing interests in even shorter x-ray pulses, such as fs to sub-fs regime. One of the simple solutions is going to even lower charge. As discussed, single-spike x-ray pulses can be generated using 1 pC charge. However, this charge level is out of the present LCLS diagnostic range. 20 pC is a reasonable operation charge at LCLS, based on the present diagnostic system. At 20 pC in the soft x-ray wavelength regime, we have experimentally demonstrated that FEL can work at undercompression or over-compression mode, such as 1 degree off the full-compression; at full-compression, however, there is almost no lasing. In hard x-ray wavelength regime, we observed that there are reasonable photons generated even at full-compression mode, although the photon number is less than that from under-compression or over-compression mode. Since we cannot measure the x-ray pulse length at this time scale, the machine is typically optimized for generating maximum photons, not minimum pulse length. In this paper, we study the methods of producing femtosecond (or single-spike) x-ray pulses at LCLS with 20 pC charge, based on start-to-end simulations. Figure 1 shows a layout of LCLS. The compression in the second bunch compressor (BC2) determines the final e-beam bunch length. However, the laser heater, dog-leg after the main linac (DL2) and collective effects also affect the final bunch length. To adjust BC2 compression, we can either change the L2 phase or BC2 R{sub 56}. In this paper we only tune L2 phase while keep BC2 R{sub 56} fixed. For the start-to-end simulations, we used IMPACT-T and ELEGANT tracking from the photocathode to the entrance of the undulator, after that the FEL radiation was simulated with GENESIS. IMPACT-T tracks about 10{sup 6} particles in the injector part until 135 MeV, including 3D space charge force. The output particles from IMPACT-T are smoothed and increased to 12 x 10{sup 6} to reduce high-frequency numerical noise for subsequent ELEGANT simulations, which include linear and nonlinear transport effects, a 1D transient model of CSR, and longitudinal space charge effects, as well as geometric and resistive wake fields in the accelerator. In GENESIS part, the longitudinal wake field from undulator chamber and longitudinal space field are also included.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1032756
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-14596
TRN: US1200549
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Conference
Journal Name:
Conf.Proc.C110904:3133-3135,2011
Additional Journal Information:
Conference: Presented at the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC-2011), San Sebastian, Spain, 4-9 Sep 2011
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BRIGHTNESS; COMPRESSION; COMPRESSORS; ELECTRON BEAMS; FERMILAB ACCELERATOR; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; LASERS; LIGHT SOURCES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; OPTIMIZATION; ORIGIN; PHOTOCATHODES; PHOTONS; RADIATIONS; SPACE CHARGE; STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES; TRANSIENTS; WAVELENGTHS; WIGGLER MAGNETS; Accelerators,ACCPHY

Citation Formats

Wang, L., Ding, Y., Huang, Z., and /SLAC. Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Wang, L., Ding, Y., Huang, Z., & /SLAC. Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam. United States.
Wang, L., Ding, Y., Huang, Z., and /SLAC. Wed . "Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1032756.
@article{osti_1032756,
title = {Optimization for Single-Spike X-Ray FELs at LCLS with a Low Charge Beam},
author = {Wang, L. and Ding, Y. and Huang, Z. and /SLAC},
abstractNote = {The Linac Coherent Light Source is an x-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which is operating at x-ray wavelengths of 20-1.2 Angstrom with peak brightness nearly ten orders of magnitude beyond conventional synchrotron radiation sources. At the low charge operation mode (20 pC), the x-ray pulse length can be <10 fs. In this paper we report our numerical optimization and simulations to produce even shorter x-ray pulses by optimizing the machine and undulator setup at 20 pC charge. In the soft x-ray regime, with combination of slotted-foil or undulator taper, a single spike x-ray pulse is achievable with peak FEL power of a few 10s GW. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray Free electron laser (FEL), has started operation since 2009. With nominal operation charge of 250 pC, the generated x-ray pulse length is from 70 fs to a few hundred fs. This marks the beginning of a new era of ultrashort x-ray sciences. In addition, a low charge (20pC) operation mode has also been established. Since the collective effects are reduced at the low charge mode, we can increase the compression factor and still achieve a few kA peak current. The expected electron beam and x-ray pulses are less than 10 fs. There are growing interests in even shorter x-ray pulses, such as fs to sub-fs regime. One of the simple solutions is going to even lower charge. As discussed, single-spike x-ray pulses can be generated using 1 pC charge. However, this charge level is out of the present LCLS diagnostic range. 20 pC is a reasonable operation charge at LCLS, based on the present diagnostic system. At 20 pC in the soft x-ray wavelength regime, we have experimentally demonstrated that FEL can work at undercompression or over-compression mode, such as 1 degree off the full-compression; at full-compression, however, there is almost no lasing. In hard x-ray wavelength regime, we observed that there are reasonable photons generated even at full-compression mode, although the photon number is less than that from under-compression or over-compression mode. Since we cannot measure the x-ray pulse length at this time scale, the machine is typically optimized for generating maximum photons, not minimum pulse length. In this paper, we study the methods of producing femtosecond (or single-spike) x-ray pulses at LCLS with 20 pC charge, based on start-to-end simulations. Figure 1 shows a layout of LCLS. The compression in the second bunch compressor (BC2) determines the final e-beam bunch length. However, the laser heater, dog-leg after the main linac (DL2) and collective effects also affect the final bunch length. To adjust BC2 compression, we can either change the L2 phase or BC2 R{sub 56}. In this paper we only tune L2 phase while keep BC2 R{sub 56} fixed. For the start-to-end simulations, we used IMPACT-T and ELEGANT tracking from the photocathode to the entrance of the undulator, after that the FEL radiation was simulated with GENESIS. IMPACT-T tracks about 10{sup 6} particles in the injector part until 135 MeV, including 3D space charge force. The output particles from IMPACT-T are smoothed and increased to 12 x 10{sup 6} to reduce high-frequency numerical noise for subsequent ELEGANT simulations, which include linear and nonlinear transport effects, a 1D transient model of CSR, and longitudinal space charge effects, as well as geometric and resistive wake fields in the accelerator. In GENESIS part, the longitudinal wake field from undulator chamber and longitudinal space field are also included.},
doi = {},
journal = {Conf.Proc.C110904:3133-3135,2011},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {12}
}

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