skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.

Abstract

On February 15, 2007, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) submitted Recommendations for Remedial Action at Everest, Kansas. Those Recommendations were accepted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in a letter to the CCC/USDA dated March 5, 2007. The approved Recommendations document outlines a plan for systematic groundwater sampling and monitoring at Everest to provide data necessary for the critical evaluation of remedial options - including a phytoremediation alternative - for restoration of the groundwater and protection of the surface waters of the intermittent creek at this site. Phase I of the KDHE-approved monitoring plan includes the following activities: (1) Groundwater sampling at existing monitoring wells, with analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and selected biodegradation parameters; (2) Sampling of surface waters along the intermittent creek for VOCs analyses; and (3) Periodic manual measurement and automated recording of groundwater and surface water levels in the vicinity of the intermittent creek. The locations selected for groundwater and surface water sampling and analyses under the approved monitoring program were determined in consultation with the KDHE. As a result of subsequent discussions among representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne regarding the technical programmore » at Everest, the CCC/USDA seeks KDHE approval for the installation of up to four new permanent monitoring wells along the upper reach of the intermittent creek west of the Nigh property, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed new well locations lie progressively downgradient in the anticipated direction of future groundwater and contaminant movement; all of the recommended points lie at least 2,000 ft upgradient, however, of the confirmed area of groundwater discharge to the creek identified near Highway 73. The proposed new wells will supplement the existing network of groundwater and surface water monitoring points identified in the KDHE-approved monitoring plan. The new wells will be sampled in accord with the schedules outlined in the approved plan. The new wells are recommended to address specific investigation needs, as follows: (1) The proposed borings will provide data on the lithologic and hydrogeologic characteristics - and the relative continuity - of the Everest aquifer unit along the upgradient reach of the intermittent creek, where possible implementation of a phytoremediation remedy is under consideration. (2) Installation of the borings will permit the collection of sediments from the aquifer unit for possible physical or hydraulic property analyses. The completed monitoring wells will also facilitate possible future in situ estimation of the aquifer unit's hydraulic properties in this area, as part of the remedy evaluation and development process. (3) The completed new wells will be used to determine the depths to groundwater and the pattern(s) of groundwater flow near the intermittent creek, and hence to predict more accurately the locations of possible groundwater (and contaminant) discharge and the extent of the area amenable to possible phytoremediation. (4) The use of automated groundwater level recorders at the new locations will provide data on the potential range and variability of groundwater levels to be expected in the area near the intermittent creek. (5) Periodic sampling of the recommended wells for VOCs analyses will help to constrain (1) the rate(s) and pathway(s) of contaminant approach toward the intermittent creek (and the area amenable to possible phytoremediation) and (2) the areal extent of the plume as it continues to evolve. The resulting 'early warning' data obtained from this sampling will therefore help to ensure that remedial action can be taken, if necessary, in sufficient time to prevent unacceptable levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination from threatening the identified surface waters of the creek. The well locations shown in Figure 1 were chosen to satisfy the technical objectives above, as well as to minimize disruption (to the extent possible) of the normal agricultural activities in the required investigation area. To accommodate these somewhat conflicting goals, the recommended monitoring points include one new well (PZ1) along the existing waterways west of the Nigh property, one new well (PZ3) along the margin of the farm field southwest of existing well SB63 and northeast of well SB64, and two new wells (PZ2, PZ4) in the fields east of the intermittent creek. The CCC/USDA has contacted the potentially affected landowner and is attempting to negotiate access to the desired well locations. If the necessary access cannot be obtained, a modified distribution of three new monitoring wells, to be located entirely along the existing waterways west and southwest of the Nigh property, is proposed as a possible alternate configuration.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (Environmental Science Division)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDA
OSTI Identifier:
1031445
Report Number(s):
ANL/EVS/AGEM/CHRON-1041
TRN: US201201%%713
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AQUIFERS; BIODEGRADATION; BOREHOLES; CARBON TETRACHLORIDE; CONES; CONFIGURATION; CONTAMINATION; GEOLOGY; GROUND LEVEL; HYDRAULICS; IMPLEMENTATION; INCLINATION; MONITORING; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PENETROMETERS; PLUMES; REMEDIAL ACTION; SAMPLING; SEDIMENTS; SURFACE WATERS

Citation Formats

LaFreniere, L. M.. Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/1031445.
LaFreniere, L. M.. Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.. United States. doi:10.2172/1031445.
LaFreniere, L. M.. Thu . "Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.". United States. doi:10.2172/1031445. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1031445.
@article{osti_1031445,
title = {Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.},
author = {LaFreniere, L. M.},
abstractNote = {On February 15, 2007, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) submitted Recommendations for Remedial Action at Everest, Kansas. Those Recommendations were accepted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in a letter to the CCC/USDA dated March 5, 2007. The approved Recommendations document outlines a plan for systematic groundwater sampling and monitoring at Everest to provide data necessary for the critical evaluation of remedial options - including a phytoremediation alternative - for restoration of the groundwater and protection of the surface waters of the intermittent creek at this site. Phase I of the KDHE-approved monitoring plan includes the following activities: (1) Groundwater sampling at existing monitoring wells, with analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and selected biodegradation parameters; (2) Sampling of surface waters along the intermittent creek for VOCs analyses; and (3) Periodic manual measurement and automated recording of groundwater and surface water levels in the vicinity of the intermittent creek. The locations selected for groundwater and surface water sampling and analyses under the approved monitoring program were determined in consultation with the KDHE. As a result of subsequent discussions among representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne regarding the technical program at Everest, the CCC/USDA seeks KDHE approval for the installation of up to four new permanent monitoring wells along the upper reach of the intermittent creek west of the Nigh property, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed new well locations lie progressively downgradient in the anticipated direction of future groundwater and contaminant movement; all of the recommended points lie at least 2,000 ft upgradient, however, of the confirmed area of groundwater discharge to the creek identified near Highway 73. The proposed new wells will supplement the existing network of groundwater and surface water monitoring points identified in the KDHE-approved monitoring plan. The new wells will be sampled in accord with the schedules outlined in the approved plan. The new wells are recommended to address specific investigation needs, as follows: (1) The proposed borings will provide data on the lithologic and hydrogeologic characteristics - and the relative continuity - of the Everest aquifer unit along the upgradient reach of the intermittent creek, where possible implementation of a phytoremediation remedy is under consideration. (2) Installation of the borings will permit the collection of sediments from the aquifer unit for possible physical or hydraulic property analyses. The completed monitoring wells will also facilitate possible future in situ estimation of the aquifer unit's hydraulic properties in this area, as part of the remedy evaluation and development process. (3) The completed new wells will be used to determine the depths to groundwater and the pattern(s) of groundwater flow near the intermittent creek, and hence to predict more accurately the locations of possible groundwater (and contaminant) discharge and the extent of the area amenable to possible phytoremediation. (4) The use of automated groundwater level recorders at the new locations will provide data on the potential range and variability of groundwater levels to be expected in the area near the intermittent creek. (5) Periodic sampling of the recommended wells for VOCs analyses will help to constrain (1) the rate(s) and pathway(s) of contaminant approach toward the intermittent creek (and the area amenable to possible phytoremediation) and (2) the areal extent of the plume as it continues to evolve. The resulting 'early warning' data obtained from this sampling will therefore help to ensure that remedial action can be taken, if necessary, in sufficient time to prevent unacceptable levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination from threatening the identified surface waters of the creek. The well locations shown in Figure 1 were chosen to satisfy the technical objectives above, as well as to minimize disruption (to the extent possible) of the normal agricultural activities in the required investigation area. To accommodate these somewhat conflicting goals, the recommended monitoring points include one new well (PZ1) along the existing waterways west of the Nigh property, one new well (PZ3) along the margin of the farm field southwest of existing well SB63 and northeast of well SB64, and two new wells (PZ2, PZ4) in the fields east of the intermittent creek. The CCC/USDA has contacted the potentially affected landowner and is attempting to negotiate access to the desired well locations. If the necessary access cannot be obtained, a modified distribution of three new monitoring wells, to be located entirely along the existing waterways west and southwest of the Nigh property, is proposed as a possible alternate configuration.},
doi = {10.2172/1031445},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 03 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu May 03 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to discuss the recent (Phase III) environmental studies performed by Argonne at Everest, Kansas, and to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. Argonne distributed a brief Scopingmore » Memo (Argonne 2005) to the CCC/USDA and the KDHE before the meeting to facilitate the intended pre-CAS discussions. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, for further assistance in identifying and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions include the following: (1) Construction of one or more additional, strategically located interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility. (2) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. (3) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. This report presents an update on efforts of the CCC/USDA and Argonne to address the KDHE concerns, and it proposes several additional actions for consideration.« less
  • On September 7, 2005, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) presented a Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) for preliminary consideration by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). This document suggested possible remedial options for the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at Everest, Kansas. The suggested approaches were discussed by representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne at the KDHE office in Topeka on September 8-9, 2005, along with other technical and logistic issues related to the Everest site. In response to these discussions, the KDHE recommended (KDHE 2005) evaluation of several remedial processes,more » either alone or in combination, as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for Everest. The primary remedial processes suggested by the KDHE included the following: (1) Hydraulic control by groundwater extraction with aboveground treatment; (2) Air sparging-soil vapor extraction (SVE) in large-diameter boreholes; and (3) Phytoremediation. As a further outcome of the 2005 meeting and as a precursor to the proposed CAS, the CCC/USDA completed the following supplemental investigations at Everest to address several specific technical concerns discussed with the KDHE: (1) Construction of interpretive cross sections at strategic locations selected by the KDHE along the main plume migration pathway, to depict the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater flow and contaminant movement (Argonne 2006a); (2) A field investigation in early 2006 (Argonne 2006c), as follows: (a) Installation and testing of a production well and associated observation points, at locations approved by the KDHE, to determine the response of the Everest aquifer to groundwater extraction near the Nigh property; (b) Groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the installation of additional permanent monitoring points at locations selected by the KDHE, to further constrain the existing contaminant plume; and (c) Resampling of all existing permanent monitoring points for VOCs and biodegradation parameter analyses, at the request of the KDHE. On the basis of these studies (Argonne 2006a,c) and the CCC/USDA's past investigations at Everest (Argonne 2006b), the CCC/USDA concluded that groundwater extraction is not an effective remedial option for this site, and the KDHE concurred (KDHE 2006). As outlined in the next section, the CCC/USDA also believes that air sparging does not represent a viable remedial alternative. The CCC/USDA therefore proposes to collect the technical data required to evaluate the potential viability of a phytoremediation approach for this site and, if appropriate, to support the development of a remedial design.« less
  • On September 7, 2005, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) presented a Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) for preliminary consideration by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), suggesting possible remedial options for the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at Everest, Kansas. The suggested approaches were discussed by representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne at the KDHE office in Topeka on September 8-9, 2005, along with other technical and logistic issues related to the Everest site. In response to these discussions, the KDHE recommended (KDHE 2005) evaluation of several remedial processes, either alonemore » or in combination, as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for Everest. The primary remedial processes suggested by the KDHE were the following: Hydraulic control by groundwater extraction with aboveground treatment; Air sparging (AS) coupled with soil vapor extraction (SVE) in large-diameter boreholes (LDBs); and Phytoremediation. As a further outcome of the 2005 meeting and as a precursor to development of a possible CAS, the CCC/USDA completed the following supplemental investigations at Everest to address several specific technical concerns discussed with the KDHE: (1) Construction of interpretive cross sections at strategic locations selected by the KDHE along the main plume migration pathway, to depict the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater flow and contaminant movement (Argonne 2006a). (2) A field investigation in early 2006 (Argonne 2006b), as follows: (a) Installation and testing of a production well and associated observation points, at locations approved by the KDHE, to determine the response of the Everest aquifer to groundwater extraction near the Nigh property. (b) Groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the installation of additional permanent monitoring points at locations selected by the KDHE, to further constrain the existing contaminant plume. (c) Resampling of all existing permanent monitoring points for VOCs and biodegradation parameter analyses, at the request of the KDHE. On the basis of these studies (Argonne 2006a,b) and the CCC/USDA's past investigations at Everest (Argonne 2006c), the CCC/USDA concluded that groundwater extraction is not an effective remedial option for the main body of the groundwater plume, and the KDHE concurred (KDHE 2006); the KDHE later noted, however (KDHE 2007a), that this and other technologies might represent viable remedial options in the event of further downgradient migration of the plume toward the intermittent creek. In February 2007, the CCC/USDA presented preliminary analyses of (1) the AS-SVE remedial alternative, incorporating the use of LDBs, and (2) the risks to human health and the environment posed by the observed carbon tetrachloride plume in groundwater (Argonne 2007a). The results of these analyses demonstrated the following: (1) Neither groundwater extraction nor AS-SVE in LDBs represents a practical approach for effective remediation of the groundwater contamination at Everest (near the Nigh property). (2) Periodic sampling and analyses for VOCs conducted by the CCC/USDA documented that the areal extent and range of carbon tetrachloride concentrations detected in the groundwater plume at Everest had changed relatively little from 2000 to 2006. (3) Estimates of groundwater flow and contaminant migration times, based on the hydrogeologic properties of the groundwater flow system identified at Everest (Argonne 2003, 2006b,c), indicated that, at minimum, approximately 4 years would be required for the carbon tetrachloride plume (in the subsurface) to reach the vicinity of the intermittent creek directly west of the Nigh property, and more than 20 years would be required for the contamination to reach the identified groundwater discharge area southwest of the Nigh property. (4) The existing (January-March 2006) plume posed no immediate danger of contamination to the surface waters of the intermittent creek. In light of these observations, the CCC/USDA proposed a phased program--over approximately 2-3 years--of groundwater sampling, surface water sampling, and related monitoring activities at Everest to (1) identify locations where a phytoremediation system would be effective and determine that area's extent and (2) support the potential development of a phytoremediation treatment alternative for the site. The recommended elements of the monitoring program are summarized in Table 1.1. In conjunction with this program, both the CCC/USDA and the KDHE recommended the construction of several new monitoring wells, at locations along and near the intermittent creek west of the Nigh property (Argonne 2007b; KDHE 2007b).« less
  • In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE).more » The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been effectively, identified by the existing network of monitoring points and have not changed significantly during the CCC/USDA investigation program. The carbon tetrachloride distribution within the plume has continued to evolve, however, with relatively constant or apparently decreasing contaminant levels at most sampling locations. In response to these findings, the KDHE requested that the CCC/USDA develop a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water at Everest, to facilitate continued tracking of the carbon tetrachloride plume at this site (KDHE 2009a). A recommendation for annual sampling (for analyses of VOCs) of 16 existing groundwater monitoring points within and near the identified contaminant migration pathway and surface water sampling at 5 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the identified plume was presented by the CCC/USDA (Appendix A) and approved by the KDHE (2009b) for implementation. The monitoring wells will be sampled according to the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities will be consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. This report summarizes the results of sampling and monitoring activities conducted at the Everest site since completion of the April 2008 groundwater sampling event (Argonne 2008). The investigations performed during the current review period (May 2008 to October 2009) were as follows: (1) With one exception, the KDHE-approved groundwater and surface water monitoring points were sampled on April 24-27, 2009. In this event, well PT1 was inadvertently sampled instead of the adjacent well MW04. This investigation represents the first groundwater and surface water sampling event performed under the current plan for annual monitoring approved by the KDHE. (2) Ongoing monitoring of the groundwater levels at Everest is performed with KDHE approval. The levels in selected monitoring wells are recorded continuously, by using downhole pressure sensors equipped with automatic data loggers, and periodically are also measured manually. Groundwater level data were recovered during the current review period on September 19, 2008, and on March 25, April 25-27, and October 20, 2009. (3) Argonne experience has demonstrated that the sampling and analysis (for VOCs) of native vegetation, and particularly tree tissues, often provides a sensitive indicator of possible carbon tetrachloride contamination in the surface water or shallow groundwater within the plant rooting zone. With the approval of the CCC/USDA, on August 28, 2009, samples of tree branch tissues were therefore collected for analyses at 18 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property.« less
  • The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) began its environmental investigations at Everest, Kansas, in 2000. The work at Everest is implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The results of the environmental investigations have been reported in detail (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The lateral extent of the carbon tetrachloride in groundwater over the years of investigation has been interpreted as shown in Figure 1.1 (2001-2002 data), Figure 1.2 (2006 data), Figure 1.3 (2008 data), and Figure 1.4 (2009 data). Themore » pattern of groundwater flow and inferred contaminant migration has consistently been to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property (e.g., Figure 1.5 [2008 data] and Figure 1.6 [2009 data]). Both the monitoring data for carbon tetrachloride and the low groundwater flow rates estimated for the Everest aquifer unit (Argonne 2003, 2006a,b, 2008) indicate slow contaminant migration. On the basis of the accumulated findings, in March 2009 the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water. This current monitoring plan (Appendix A in the report of monitoring in 2009 [Argonne 2010]) was approved by the KDHE (2009a). Under this plan, the monitoring wells are sampled by the low-flow procedure, and sample preservation, shipping, and analysis activities are consistent with previous work at Everest. The annual sampling will continue until identified conditions at the site indicate a technical justification for a change. The first annual sampling event under the new monitoring plan took place in April 2009. The results of analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements were consistent with previous observations (Figures 1.1-1.4). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface water of the intermittent creek or in tree branch samples collected at 18 locations along the creek banks. The complete results were reported previously (Argonne 2010). This report presents the results of the second annual sampling events, conducted in 2010. Included in the 2010 monitoring were the following: (1) Continued automatic and manual monitoring of groundwater levels. (2) Groundwater sampling on April 8-9, 2010. (3) Surface water sampling on April 8, 2010. (4) Vegetation sampling on July 28, 2010. (5) Indoor air sampling at selected residences on August 11-12, 2010. The activities are described in Section 2, and the results are discussed in Section 3. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in Section 4.« less