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Title: Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron

Abstract

During the start-up of Run II of the Tevatron Collider program, several issues surfaced which were not present, or not seen as detrimental, during Run I. These included the repeated deterioration of the closed orbit requiring orbit smoothing every two weeks or so, the inability to correct the closed orbit to desired positions due to various correctors running at maximum limits, regions of systematically strong vertical dipole corrections, and the identification of very strong coupling between the two transverse degrees-of-freedom. It became apparent that many of the problems being experienced operationally were connected to a deterioration of the main dipole magnet alignment, and remedial actions were undertaken. However, the alignment alone was not enough to explain the corrector strengths required to handle transverse coupling. With one exception, strong coupling had generally not been an issue in the Tevatron during Run I. Based on experience with the Main Ring, the Tevatron was designed with a very strong skew quadrupole circuit to compensate any quadrupole alignment and skew quadrupole field errors that might present themselves. The circuit was composed of 48 correctors placed evenly throughout the arcs, 8 per sector, evenly placed in every other cell. Other smaller circuits were installed butmore » not initially needed or commissioned. These smaller circuits were composed of individual skew quadrupole correctors on either side of the long straight sections. These circuits were tuned by first bringing the horizontal and vertical tunes near each other. The skew quadrupoles were then adjusted to minimize tune split, usually to less than 0.003. Initially, the main skew quad circuit (designated T:SQ) could accomplish this global decoupling with only 4% of its possible current, and the smaller circuits were not required at all. The start-up of Run Ib was complicated by what was later discovered to be a rolled triplet quadrupole magnet in one of the Interaction Regions. This led to a reduction in luminosity of nearly 50%, as well as operational confusion until it was uncovered. By the time Collider Run II began, the current needed on the main SQ circuit had increased to 60% of its maximum value. Some of the smaller circuits were also needed to fully decouple the tunes. With this history, several studies were performed early in Run II to search for strong local coupling sources like the triplet quadrupole, but without success. The strong corrector settings were indicative of a much larger problem than a single rolled magnet, and the locality of the error was hard to deduce from the setting of a global correction system. Several possible reasons for the increase in coupling were investigated.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1030725
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-11-318-AD-TD
TRN: US1106035
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Submitted to JINST(Open Access)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Submitted to JINST(Open Access)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ALIGNMENT; CREEP; DECOUPLING; DEGREES OF FREEDOM; DIPOLES; FERMILAB TEVATRON; LUMINOSITY; MAGNETS; QUADRUPOLES; REMEDIAL ACTION; START-UP; TRIPLETS; Accelerators

Citation Formats

Annala, G., Harding, D.J., Syphers, M.J., and /Fermilab. Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Annala, G., Harding, D.J., Syphers, M.J., & /Fermilab. Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron. United States.
Annala, G., Harding, D.J., Syphers, M.J., and /Fermilab. Mon . "Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1030725.
@article{osti_1030725,
title = {Coil Creep and Skew-Quadrupole Field Components in the Tevatron},
author = {Annala, G. and Harding, D.J. and Syphers, M.J. and /Fermilab},
abstractNote = {During the start-up of Run II of the Tevatron Collider program, several issues surfaced which were not present, or not seen as detrimental, during Run I. These included the repeated deterioration of the closed orbit requiring orbit smoothing every two weeks or so, the inability to correct the closed orbit to desired positions due to various correctors running at maximum limits, regions of systematically strong vertical dipole corrections, and the identification of very strong coupling between the two transverse degrees-of-freedom. It became apparent that many of the problems being experienced operationally were connected to a deterioration of the main dipole magnet alignment, and remedial actions were undertaken. However, the alignment alone was not enough to explain the corrector strengths required to handle transverse coupling. With one exception, strong coupling had generally not been an issue in the Tevatron during Run I. Based on experience with the Main Ring, the Tevatron was designed with a very strong skew quadrupole circuit to compensate any quadrupole alignment and skew quadrupole field errors that might present themselves. The circuit was composed of 48 correctors placed evenly throughout the arcs, 8 per sector, evenly placed in every other cell. Other smaller circuits were installed but not initially needed or commissioned. These smaller circuits were composed of individual skew quadrupole correctors on either side of the long straight sections. These circuits were tuned by first bringing the horizontal and vertical tunes near each other. The skew quadrupoles were then adjusted to minimize tune split, usually to less than 0.003. Initially, the main skew quad circuit (designated T:SQ) could accomplish this global decoupling with only 4% of its possible current, and the smaller circuits were not required at all. The start-up of Run Ib was complicated by what was later discovered to be a rolled triplet quadrupole magnet in one of the Interaction Regions. This led to a reduction in luminosity of nearly 50%, as well as operational confusion until it was uncovered. By the time Collider Run II began, the current needed on the main SQ circuit had increased to 60% of its maximum value. Some of the smaller circuits were also needed to fully decouple the tunes. With this history, several studies were performed early in Run II to search for strong local coupling sources like the triplet quadrupole, but without success. The strong corrector settings were indicative of a much larger problem than a single rolled magnet, and the locality of the error was hard to deduce from the setting of a global correction system. Several possible reasons for the increase in coupling were investigated.},
doi = {},
journal = {Submitted to JINST(Open Access)},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {7}
}