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Title: International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

Abstract

The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is alreadymore » underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak forces, which are observed by experiments in very different forms. So far, there is no direct experimental evidence for a Higgs field or the Higgs particle that should accompany it. Furthermore, quantum effects of the type already observed in experiments should destabilize the Higgs boson of the Standard Model, preventing its operation at Terascale energies. The proposed antidotes for this quantum instability mostly involve dramatic phenomena at the Terascale: new forces, a new principle of nature called supersymmetry, or even extra dimensions of space. Thus for particle physicists the Higgs boson is at the center of a much broader program of discovery, taking off from a long list of questions. Is there really a Higgs boson? If not, what are the mechanisms that give mass to particles and break the electroweak force? If there is a Higgs boson, does it differ from the hypothetical Higgs of the Standard Model? Is there more than one Higgs particle? What are the new phenomena that stabilize the Higgs boson at the Terascale? What properties of Higgs boson inform us about these new phenomena? Another major opportunity for the ILC is to shed light on the dark side of the universe. Astrophysical data shows that dark matter dominates over visible matter, and that almost all of this dark matter cannot be composed of known particles. This data, combined with the concordance model of Big Bang cosmology, suggests that dark matter is comprised of new particles that interact weakly with ordinary matter and have Terascale masses. It is truely remarkable that astrophysics and cosmology, completely independently of the particle physics considerations reviewed above, point to new phenomena at the Terascale. If Terascale dark matter exists, experiments at the ILC should be able to produce such particles in the laboratory and study their properties. Another list of questions will then beckon. Do these new particles really have the correct properties to be the dark matter? Do they account for all of the dark matter, or only part of it? What do their properties tell us about the evolution of the universe? How is dark matter connected to new principles or forces of nature? A third cluster of scientific opportunities for the ILC focus on Einstein's vision of an ultimate unified theory. Particle physics data already suggests that three of the fundamental forces originated from a single 'grand' unified force in the first instant of the Big Bang. Experiments at the ILC could test this idea and look for evidence of a related unified origin of matter involving supersymmetry. A theoretical framework called string theory goes beyond grand unification to include gravity, extra spatial dimensions, and new fundamental entities called superstrings. Theoretical models to explain the properties of neutrinos, and account for the mysterious dominance of matter over antimatter, also posit unification at high energies.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1029489
Report Number(s):
SLAC-R-975
arXiv:0709.1893; TRN: US1202512
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
arXiv:0709.1893
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: arXiv:0709.1893
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ANTIMATTER; ASTROPHYSICS; COSMOLOGY; DIMENSIONS; ELEMENTARY PARTICLES; GRAND UNIFIED THEORY; HIGGS BOSONS; INSTABILITY; LINEAR COLLIDERS; NEUTRINOS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; ORIGIN; PARTICLE INTERACTIONS; PHYSICS; SAFETY REPORTS; STANDARD MODEL; STRING THEORY; SUPERSYMMETRY; UNIVERSE; Phenomenology-HEP,HEPPH

Citation Formats

Aarons, Gerald, Abe, Toshinori, Abernathy, Jason, Ablikim, Medina, Abramowicz, Halina, Adey, David, Adloff, Catherine, Adolphsen, Chris, Afanaciev, Konstantin, Agapov, Ilya, Ahn, Jung-Keun, Aihara, Hiroaki, Akemoto, Mitsuo, del Carmen Alabau, Maria, Albert, Justin, Albrecht, Hartwig, Albrecht, Michael, Alesini, David, Alexander, Gideon, Alexander, Jim, Allison, Wade, and /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC. United States: N. p., 2011. Web.
Aarons, Gerald, Abe, Toshinori, Abernathy, Jason, Ablikim, Medina, Abramowicz, Halina, Adey, David, Adloff, Catherine, Adolphsen, Chris, Afanaciev, Konstantin, Agapov, Ilya, Ahn, Jung-Keun, Aihara, Hiroaki, Akemoto, Mitsuo, del Carmen Alabau, Maria, Albert, Justin, Albrecht, Hartwig, Albrecht, Michael, Alesini, David, Alexander, Gideon, Alexander, Jim, Allison, Wade, & /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC. United States.
Aarons, Gerald, Abe, Toshinori, Abernathy, Jason, Ablikim, Medina, Abramowicz, Halina, Adey, David, Adloff, Catherine, Adolphsen, Chris, Afanaciev, Konstantin, Agapov, Ilya, Ahn, Jung-Keun, Aihara, Hiroaki, Akemoto, Mitsuo, del Carmen Alabau, Maria, Albert, Justin, Albrecht, Hartwig, Albrecht, Michael, Alesini, David, Alexander, Gideon, Alexander, Jim, Allison, Wade, and /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab. Mon . "International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1029489.
@article{osti_1029489,
title = {International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC},
author = {Aarons, Gerald and Abe, Toshinori and Abernathy, Jason and Ablikim, Medina and Abramowicz, Halina and Adey, David and Adloff, Catherine and Adolphsen, Chris and Afanaciev, Konstantin and Agapov, Ilya and Ahn, Jung-Keun and Aihara, Hiroaki and Akemoto, Mitsuo and del Carmen Alabau, Maria and Albert, Justin and Albrecht, Hartwig and Albrecht, Michael and Alesini, David and Alexander, Gideon and Alexander, Jim and Allison, Wade and /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab},
abstractNote = {The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak forces, which are observed by experiments in very different forms. So far, there is no direct experimental evidence for a Higgs field or the Higgs particle that should accompany it. Furthermore, quantum effects of the type already observed in experiments should destabilize the Higgs boson of the Standard Model, preventing its operation at Terascale energies. The proposed antidotes for this quantum instability mostly involve dramatic phenomena at the Terascale: new forces, a new principle of nature called supersymmetry, or even extra dimensions of space. Thus for particle physicists the Higgs boson is at the center of a much broader program of discovery, taking off from a long list of questions. Is there really a Higgs boson? If not, what are the mechanisms that give mass to particles and break the electroweak force? If there is a Higgs boson, does it differ from the hypothetical Higgs of the Standard Model? Is there more than one Higgs particle? What are the new phenomena that stabilize the Higgs boson at the Terascale? What properties of Higgs boson inform us about these new phenomena? Another major opportunity for the ILC is to shed light on the dark side of the universe. Astrophysical data shows that dark matter dominates over visible matter, and that almost all of this dark matter cannot be composed of known particles. This data, combined with the concordance model of Big Bang cosmology, suggests that dark matter is comprised of new particles that interact weakly with ordinary matter and have Terascale masses. It is truely remarkable that astrophysics and cosmology, completely independently of the particle physics considerations reviewed above, point to new phenomena at the Terascale. If Terascale dark matter exists, experiments at the ILC should be able to produce such particles in the laboratory and study their properties. Another list of questions will then beckon. Do these new particles really have the correct properties to be the dark matter? Do they account for all of the dark matter, or only part of it? What do their properties tell us about the evolution of the universe? How is dark matter connected to new principles or forces of nature? A third cluster of scientific opportunities for the ILC focus on Einstein's vision of an ultimate unified theory. Particle physics data already suggests that three of the fundamental forces originated from a single 'grand' unified force in the first instant of the Big Bang. Experiments at the ILC could test this idea and look for evidence of a related unified origin of matter involving supersymmetry. A theoretical framework called string theory goes beyond grand unification to include gravity, extra spatial dimensions, and new fundamental entities called superstrings. Theoretical models to explain the properties of neutrinos, and account for the mysterious dominance of matter over antimatter, also posit unification at high energies.},
doi = {},
journal = {arXiv:0709.1893},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {11}
}