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Title: Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.

Abstract

Experimental plantings were installed at five sites in three locations in western Minnesota. Aboveground biomass production increased 43-82% as a result of three annual applications of urea or balanced nutrient blend fertilizer beginning near canopy closure. There were no production differences between the type of fertilizer used, indicating that N was the major limiting nutrient. Responses were consistent from site to site, indicating that hybrid poplar stands in this region at this stage of development would be very responsive to fertilization. Leaf tissue N, P, and K concentrations increased in response to both fertilizer treatments; P and K increased more frequently in response to the blend treatment compared to the N-only urea treatment. The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) indices indicated that the stands were near optimal nutritional balance prior to fertilization. Treatments increased individual leaf area and leaf litter production up to 33% and 37%, respectively. Canopy leaf area, leaf N concentration and the sum of DRIS indices were correlated with aboveground production. Growth efficiency, the ratio of production to canopy leaf area, increased with both fertilizer treatment and successive years of treatment, indicating improved stand vigor due to nutrient amendments. Stand production increased more in response tomore » changes in leaf N concentration as stands aged. Plantation production continued to increase with increased internal N concentration even when deficiency levels or levels defined as sufficient for fast growth were exceeded. The correlation between aboveground production and the sum of DRIS indices shows that optimal nutrition at canopy closure may result in current aboveground dry matter production exceeding 13Mgha-1 yr-1. Multiple small-dose amendments appear to be effective in increasing production by maintaining high internal N concentrations.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE EM Office of Program and Site Support (EM-50)
OSTI Identifier:
1027500
Report Number(s):
06-24-P
Journal ID: ISSN 0961-9534; BMSBEO; na; TRN: US201121%%653
DOE Contract Number:
AI09-00SR22188
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biomass and Bioenergy; Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMASS; CLOSURES; DIAGNOSIS; EFFICIENCY; FERTILIZATION; FERTILIZERS; MINNESOTA; NUTRIENTS; NUTRITION; POPLARS; PRODUCTION; RECOMMENDATIONS; UREA; Biomass; DRIS; Forest tent caterpillar; Growth efficiency; Nutrient addition rate; Optimal nutrition; Short rotation woody crops; Urea

Citation Formats

Coleman, M., D., Tolsted, D., Nichols, T., Johnson, W., D., Ween, E.G., and Houghtaling, T. Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.01.001.
Coleman, M., D., Tolsted, D., Nichols, T., Johnson, W., D., Ween, E.G., & Houghtaling, T. Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.. United States. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.01.001.
Coleman, M., D., Tolsted, D., Nichols, T., Johnson, W., D., Ween, E.G., and Houghtaling, T. Sun . "Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.". United States. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.01.001.
@article{osti_1027500,
title = {Post-establishment fertilization of Minnesota hybrid poplar plantations.},
author = {Coleman, M., D. and Tolsted, D. and Nichols, T. and Johnson, W., D. and Ween, E.G. and Houghtaling, T.},
abstractNote = {Experimental plantings were installed at five sites in three locations in western Minnesota. Aboveground biomass production increased 43-82% as a result of three annual applications of urea or balanced nutrient blend fertilizer beginning near canopy closure. There were no production differences between the type of fertilizer used, indicating that N was the major limiting nutrient. Responses were consistent from site to site, indicating that hybrid poplar stands in this region at this stage of development would be very responsive to fertilization. Leaf tissue N, P, and K concentrations increased in response to both fertilizer treatments; P and K increased more frequently in response to the blend treatment compared to the N-only urea treatment. The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) indices indicated that the stands were near optimal nutritional balance prior to fertilization. Treatments increased individual leaf area and leaf litter production up to 33% and 37%, respectively. Canopy leaf area, leaf N concentration and the sum of DRIS indices were correlated with aboveground production. Growth efficiency, the ratio of production to canopy leaf area, increased with both fertilizer treatment and successive years of treatment, indicating improved stand vigor due to nutrient amendments. Stand production increased more in response to changes in leaf N concentration as stands aged. Plantation production continued to increase with increased internal N concentration even when deficiency levels or levels defined as sufficient for fast growth were exceeded. The correlation between aboveground production and the sum of DRIS indices shows that optimal nutrition at canopy closure may result in current aboveground dry matter production exceeding 13Mgha-1 yr-1. Multiple small-dose amendments appear to be effective in increasing production by maintaining high internal N concentrations.},
doi = {10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.01.001},
journal = {Biomass and Bioenergy},
number = 1,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings from 1-10 seedling stock were established in the Tennessee Valley near Oak Ridge and fertilized with 300 kg ha{sup -1} of urea-N over a period of 3 yr according to two regimes: annually in one spring application and quarterly. Two plantation blocks for each species, one consisting of seedlings preinoculated with mycorrhizae and one without preinoculation, contained three replicate plots per treatment. Annual fertilization produced greater growth and N recovery in both loblolly pine plantations than did quarterly fertilization, the latter not being significantly different from the controls.more » Growth responses in yellow-poplar plantations were less certain and not statistically significant, probably due to moisture stress for this species on this site. There was no evidence of prolonged (>2 yr) enhancement of soil available N following either quarterly or annual fertilization. Quarterly fertilization produced the earliest and generally the most pronounced increases in soil solution NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations in all cases, followed by annual fertilization and control, respectively. These results, combined with laboratory incubations, indicated that quarterly fertilization benefited the nitrifying bacteria more than the trees on this site, particularly in the case of loblolly pine.« less
  • Relationships among soil and foliar nutrients and tree height growth or unit weight yields were examined for three Populus hybrids that were planted on an Edom silt loam soil in central Pennsylvania at densities ranging from 0.09 to 0.46 m/sup 2/ per tree. Independent of clone and growing space per tree, significant nutrient differences were measured in the soil Ap horizon and tree foliage when sampled at the end of the first and fourth growing seasons. In the soil, the level of extractable P was reduced, the amount of exchangeable Ca and Mg was greater, and the soil cation exchangemore » capacity was higher at the end of the fourth growing season. When compared to the first growing season levels, 4-year-old foliar levels of total N, P, K, and Mg were measurably lower and Ca was notably higher after 4 years. Soil bases (particularly Ca), soil or foliar N, and soil P were important total height and fiber yield determinant variables. 5 tables.« less
  • Hybrid poplar plantations in the Lake States may be a low-cost alternative to conventional sources of wood fiber for industrial users in some areas, but in most areas at this time they are high-risk, low-return investments. On the basis of our specific assumptions and 1979 prices, the return on investment of nonirrigated plantations is projected to be 8 percent. Irrigated plantations have a slightly negative rate of return. Rates differ little between short (5 to 10 years) and long (15 years) rotations. Investment performance measures are most sensitive to estimates of product sale value, yields, irrigation costs, and harvesting costs.more » The economic feasibility of various intensive production systems would be enhanced if irrigation costs could be reduced and if much higher prices could be obtained for wood fiber. Price increases would, however, tend to sustain the greater economic attractiveness of nonirrigated systems. The detailed sensitivity analyses carried out in the study will permit periodic reevaluation of the economic attractiveness of intensive culture systems as better information becomes available and as significant changes in prices and costs occur. (Refs. 3).« less
  • The purpose of this project was to track and monitor costs of planting, maintaining, and monitoring large scale commercial plantings of hybrid poplar in Minnesota. These costs assists potential growers and purchasers of this resource to determine the ways in which supply and demand may be secured through developing markets.
  • The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-Up Project planning began in late 1993. Cooperators include the WesMin Resource Conservation and Development Council, the US Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Institute, the U.S. Forest Service at Rhinelander, Wisconsin, and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources-Forestry. In spring 1994, Phase I, established 1,000 acres of trees. Phase II, documented here, includes plantings established on 870 acres by June 1995. The purpose is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining, and monitoring larger-scale commercial plantings. Accurate descriptive mapping of the soil classesmore » and specific soil types, combined with specific site maps of hybrid poplar clones, and subsequent annual growth measurements during the first rotation will help researchers develop reliable site productivity functions. These functions will provide valuable information to support continued basic research on genetic enhancement and species screening to help assure producers reliable yields across representative soils in a production region. Major findings are per-farm costs of establishment and maintenance for establishment year, machinery complements used, and methods of management. In addition, an average cost of establishment across 1,000 and 2,000 acres is profiled. These costs assist potential growers and purchasers of this resource to determine ways supply and demand may be secured through developing markets. Average production costs are documented, and the management scenario is presented for establishment for Phase II planting.« less