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Title: Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

Abstract

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. University of British Columbia, Vancouver
  2. ORNL
  3. Delta Research Corporation
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1027431
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Elsevier; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; AIR QUALITY; BIOMASS; BOILERS; BURNERS; CLEANING; COMBUSTION; COMMUNITIES; DISTRICT HEATING; ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS; ENERGY SOURCES; FLUE GAS; PARTICULATES; PELLETS; RECOMMENDATIONS; WOOD; WOOD FUELS

Citation Formats

Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine, Bi, X.T., and Melin, Staffan. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.001.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine, Bi, X.T., & Melin, Staffan. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications. United States. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.001.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine, Bi, X.T., and Melin, Staffan. 2011. "Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications". United States. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.001.
@article{osti_1027431,
title = {Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications},
author = {Ghafghazi, S. and Sowlati, T. and Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine and Bi, X.T. and Melin, Staffan},
abstractNote = {The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.},
doi = {10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.001},
journal = {Elsevier},
number = 1,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month = 1
}
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggestsmore » that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • Consumption of wood for space heating is increasing in the United States and this research investigated community air pollution in Telluride, Colorado, resulting from particulate matter emissions generated by residential wood combustion. Sampling methods, sites and equipment, including filters are described. Results showed that total suspended particulate matter and benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) concentrations were highest in the center of town, averaging 61 micro g/cubic m and 7.4 n-nano g/cubic m respectively. BaP concentrations were detected by spectroscopic analysis using HPLC. The mean BaP level appears to be several times greater than that which would be expected in a major metropolitanmore » area. Residential wood combustion is suspected as the primary source of BaP in this community. 14 references.« less
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  • Residential wood combustion (RWC) in open fireplaces poses a possible health risk because of the emission into the indoor air of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In the present report it was investigated whether this emission leads to enhanced levels of DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBC) of exposed subjects. Under conditions that most likely reflect the Dutch pattern of use of open fireplaces, RWC increased both indoor air mutagenicity and levels of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and pyrene. The indirect mutagenicity showed a stronger increase than the direct mutagenicity. The increase in indirect mutagenicity was not directly correlated with the increasemore » in the levels of B(a)P and pyrene. {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts following nuclease P1 enrichment or butanol extraction revealed low adduct levels. No combustion-related increase in the amount of adducts was observed. Possible explanations for the lack of correlation between air monitoring data and WBC DNA adduct levels are discussed. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less
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