skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems

Abstract

Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculationmore » method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1022336
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: VPPC 2007: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 9-12 September 2007, Arlington, Texas
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; CALCULATION METHODS; DESIGN; EFFICIENCY; HEAT EXCHANGERS; MANAGEMENT; MOTORS; POWER RANGE; PROPULSION; PROPULSION SYSTEMS; RELIABILITY; SIMULATION; TRANSISTORS; Transportation

Citation Formats

Cao, J., Bharathan, D., and Emadi, A.. Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1109/VPPC.2007.4544172.
Cao, J., Bharathan, D., & Emadi, A.. Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems. United States. doi:10.1109/VPPC.2007.4544172.
Cao, J., Bharathan, D., and Emadi, A.. Mon . "Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems". United States. doi:10.1109/VPPC.2007.4544172.
@article{osti_1022336,
title = {Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems},
author = {Cao, J. and Bharathan, D. and Emadi, A.},
abstractNote = {Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculation method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.},
doi = {10.1109/VPPC.2007.4544172},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • After conducting an extensive literature search and interviewing more than 100 professionals in the field, the investigator developed two case studies. The first examined the potential performance and cost of an HEV passenger vehicle in comparison with that of an automobile powered by gasoline. The second compared two commercial vehicles operating primarily in urban traffic--one an HEV van, the other a van powered solely by an electric battery.
  • The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One ismore » the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.« less
  • As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas.more » The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.« less
  • This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridizationmore » topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.« less
  • Provides an overview on the current status, long-term prospects, and key challenges in the development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology.