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Title: Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

Abstract

Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The reactions produce primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O,CO{sub 2}, and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525{degrees}C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives atmore » low temperatures (<100{degrees}C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10192677
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-93-3229; CONF-9306222-3
ON: DE94000803; CNN: Contract R-92-196-00; TRN: 93:024013
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-36
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 17. annual Army environmental R&D symposium and 3rd USACE innovative technology transfer,Williamsburg, VA (United States),22-24 Jun 1993; Other Information: PBD: 1993
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHEMICAL WASTES; WASTE PROCESSING; PROPELLANTS; OXIDATION; HYDROLYSIS; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVES; PETN; TNT; PARTICLE SIZE; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; WATER; PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS; 450100; 400800; 400201; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIONS AND EXPLOSIVES; COMBUSTION, PYROLYSIS, AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE CHEMISTRY; CHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Citation Formats

Beulow, S J, Dyer, R B, Harradine, D M, Robinson, J M, Oldenborg, R C, Funk, K A, McInroy, R E, Sanchez, J A, and Spontarelli, T. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation. United States: N. p., 1993. Web.
Beulow, S J, Dyer, R B, Harradine, D M, Robinson, J M, Oldenborg, R C, Funk, K A, McInroy, R E, Sanchez, J A, & Spontarelli, T. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation. United States.
Beulow, S J, Dyer, R B, Harradine, D M, Robinson, J M, Oldenborg, R C, Funk, K A, McInroy, R E, Sanchez, J A, and Spontarelli, T. Fri . "Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10192677.
@article{osti_10192677,
title = {Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation},
author = {Beulow, S J and Dyer, R B and Harradine, D M and Robinson, J M and Oldenborg, R C and Funk, K A and McInroy, R E and Sanchez, J A and Spontarelli, T},
abstractNote = {Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The reactions produce primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O,CO{sub 2}, and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525{degrees}C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100{degrees}C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {10}
}

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