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Title: The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

Abstract

Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hotmore » wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1] more »;  [1];  [4];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1] « less
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
  3. ORNL
  4. Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1019016
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 9th International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology, Dalian, China, 20091011, 20091016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CARBON; COATINGS; CONFINEMENT; CONFINEMENT TIME; CONSTRUCTION; DIVERTORS; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; ION TEMPERATURE; LINERS; LIQUID METALS; LITHIUM; MOLYBDENUM; NEUTRONS; PERFORMANCE; PHYSICS; PLASMA; TARGETS; Lithium; Spherical tokamak; Plasma-facing components

Citation Formats

Majeski, R, Kugel, H, Kaita, R, Avasarala, S, Bell, M G, Bell, R E, Berzak, L, Beiersdorfer, P, Gerhardt, S P, Gransted, E, Gray, T, Jacobson, C, Kallman, J, Kaye, S, Kozub, T, LeBlanc, B P, Lepson, J, Lundberg, D P, Maingi, Rajesh, Mansfield, D, Paul, S F, Pereverzev, G V, Schneider, H, Soukhanovskii, V, Strickler, T, Stotler, D, Timberlake, J, and Zakharov, L E. The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). United States: N. p., 2010. Web.
Majeski, R, Kugel, H, Kaita, R, Avasarala, S, Bell, M G, Bell, R E, Berzak, L, Beiersdorfer, P, Gerhardt, S P, Gransted, E, Gray, T, Jacobson, C, Kallman, J, Kaye, S, Kozub, T, LeBlanc, B P, Lepson, J, Lundberg, D P, Maingi, Rajesh, Mansfield, D, Paul, S F, Pereverzev, G V, Schneider, H, Soukhanovskii, V, Strickler, T, Stotler, D, Timberlake, J, & Zakharov, L E. The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). United States.
Majeski, R, Kugel, H, Kaita, R, Avasarala, S, Bell, M G, Bell, R E, Berzak, L, Beiersdorfer, P, Gerhardt, S P, Gransted, E, Gray, T, Jacobson, C, Kallman, J, Kaye, S, Kozub, T, LeBlanc, B P, Lepson, J, Lundberg, D P, Maingi, Rajesh, Mansfield, D, Paul, S F, Pereverzev, G V, Schneider, H, Soukhanovskii, V, Strickler, T, Stotler, D, Timberlake, J, and Zakharov, L E. 2010. "The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)". United States.
@article{osti_1019016,
title = {The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)},
author = {Majeski, R and Kugel, H and Kaita, R and Avasarala, S and Bell, M G and Bell, R E and Berzak, L and Beiersdorfer, P and Gerhardt, S P and Gransted, E and Gray, T and Jacobson, C and Kallman, J and Kaye, S and Kozub, T and LeBlanc, B P and Lepson, J and Lundberg, D P and Maingi, Rajesh and Mansfield, D and Paul, S F and Pereverzev, G V and Schneider, H and Soukhanovskii, V and Strickler, T and Stotler, D and Timberlake, J and Zakharov, L E},
abstractNote = {Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1019016}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {1}
}

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