skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes

Abstract

This study is motivated by renewed interest within the seismic source community to resolve the long-standing question on energy scaling of earthquakes, specifically, 'Do earthquakes scale self-similarly or are large earthquakes dynamically different than small ones?' This question is important from a seismic hazard prediction point of view, as well as for understanding basic rupture dynamics for earthquakes. Estimating the total radiated energy (ER) from earthquakes requires significant broadband corrections for path and site effects. Moreover, source radiation pattern and directivity corrections can be equally significant and also must be accounted for. Regional studies have used a number of different methods, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. These methods include: integration of squared shear wave moment-rate spectra, direct integration of broadband velocity-squared waveforms, empirical Green's function deconvolution, and spectral ratio techniques. The later two approaches have gained popularity because adjacent or co-located events recorded at common stations have shared path and site effects, which therefore cancel. In spite of this, a number of such studies find very large amplitude variance across a network of stations. In this paper we test the extent to which narrowband coda envelopes can improve upon the traditional spectral ratio using direct phases, allowing amore » better comparison with theoretical models to investigate similarity. The motivation for using the coda is its stability relative to direct waves and its unique property of spatially homogenizing its energy. The local and regional coda is virtually insensitive to lateral crustal heterogeneity and source radiation pattern, and the use of the coda might allow for more stable amplitude ratios to better constrain source differences between event pairs. We first compared amplitude ratio performance between local and near-regional S and coda waves in the San Francisco Bay region for moderate-sized events, then applied the coda spectral ratio method to the 1999 Hector Mine mainshock and some of its larger aftershocks. We find: (1) Average amplitude ratio standard deviations using coda are {approx}0.05 to 0.12, roughly a factor of 3 smaller than direct S-waves for 0.2 < f < 15.0 Hz; (2) Coda spectral ratios for the M{sub w} 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake and its aftershocks show a clear departure from self-similarity, consistent with other studies using the same datasets; (3) Event-pairs (Green's function and target events) can be separated by as much as {approx}25 km for coda amplitudes without any appreciable degradation, in sharp contrast to direct waves.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1018795
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JRNL-229275
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276; GPRLAJ; TRN: US201114%%337
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, n/a, June 8, 2007, LL11303 1-5; Journal Volume: 34
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; AFTERSHOCKS; AMPLITUDES; EARTHQUAKES; FORECASTING; PERFORMANCE; RADIATIONS; RUPTURES; S WAVES; SAN FRANCISCO BAY; SEISMIC SOURCES; SHEAR; SPECTRA; STABILITY; TARGETS; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Mayeda, K, Malagnini, L, and Walter, W R. Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Mayeda, K, Malagnini, L, & Walter, W R. Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes. United States.
Mayeda, K, Malagnini, L, and Walter, W R. Fri . "Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1018795.
@article{osti_1018795,
title = {Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes},
author = {Mayeda, K and Malagnini, L and Walter, W R},
abstractNote = {This study is motivated by renewed interest within the seismic source community to resolve the long-standing question on energy scaling of earthquakes, specifically, 'Do earthquakes scale self-similarly or are large earthquakes dynamically different than small ones?' This question is important from a seismic hazard prediction point of view, as well as for understanding basic rupture dynamics for earthquakes. Estimating the total radiated energy (ER) from earthquakes requires significant broadband corrections for path and site effects. Moreover, source radiation pattern and directivity corrections can be equally significant and also must be accounted for. Regional studies have used a number of different methods, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. These methods include: integration of squared shear wave moment-rate spectra, direct integration of broadband velocity-squared waveforms, empirical Green's function deconvolution, and spectral ratio techniques. The later two approaches have gained popularity because adjacent or co-located events recorded at common stations have shared path and site effects, which therefore cancel. In spite of this, a number of such studies find very large amplitude variance across a network of stations. In this paper we test the extent to which narrowband coda envelopes can improve upon the traditional spectral ratio using direct phases, allowing a better comparison with theoretical models to investigate similarity. The motivation for using the coda is its stability relative to direct waves and its unique property of spatially homogenizing its energy. The local and regional coda is virtually insensitive to lateral crustal heterogeneity and source radiation pattern, and the use of the coda might allow for more stable amplitude ratios to better constrain source differences between event pairs. We first compared amplitude ratio performance between local and near-regional S and coda waves in the San Francisco Bay region for moderate-sized events, then applied the coda spectral ratio method to the 1999 Hector Mine mainshock and some of its larger aftershocks. We find: (1) Average amplitude ratio standard deviations using coda are {approx}0.05 to 0.12, roughly a factor of 3 smaller than direct S-waves for 0.2 < f < 15.0 Hz; (2) Coda spectral ratios for the M{sub w} 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake and its aftershocks show a clear departure from self-similarity, consistent with other studies using the same datasets; (3) Event-pairs (Green's function and target events) can be separated by as much as {approx}25 km for coda amplitudes without any appreciable degradation, in sharp contrast to direct waves.},
doi = {},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, n/a, June 8, 2007, LL11303 1-5},
number = ,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}