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Title: Quantitative measurement and modeling of sensitization development in stainless steel

Abstract

The state-of-the-art to quantitatively measure and model sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels is assessed and critically analyzed. A modeling capability is evolved and validated using a diverse experimental data base. Quantitative predictions are demonstrated for simple and complex thermal and thermomechanical treatments. Commercial stainless steel heats ranging from high-carbon Type 304 and 316 to low-carbon Type 304L and 316L have been examined including many heats which correspond to extra-low-carbon, nuclear-grade compositions. Within certain limits the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test was found to give accurate and reproducible measurements of the degree of sensitization (DOS) in Type 304 and 316 stainless steels. EPR test results are used to develop the quantitative data base and evolve/validate the quantitative modeling capability. This thesis represents a first step to evolve methods for the quantitative assessment of structural reliability in stainless steel components and weldments. Assessments will be based on component-specific information concerning material characteristics, fabrication history and service exposure. Methods will enable fabrication (e.g., welding and repair welding) procedures and material aging effects to be evaluated and ensure adequate cracking resistance during the service lifetime of reactor components. This work is being conducted by the Oregon Graduate Institute with interactive input from personnelmore » at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering; Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10186134
Report Number(s):
NUREG/GR--0001
ON: TI93001983
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Sep 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; STAINLESS STEEL-304; MATERIALS TESTING; STAINLESS STEEL-304L; STAINLESS STEEL-316; HEAT TREATMENTS; REACTOR COMPONENTS; FABRICATION; WELDING; WELDED JOINTS; AGING; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; STRESS CORROSION; INTERGRANULAR CORROSION; COMPUTER CODES 360101; 360103; 220200; PREPARATION AND FABRICATION; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES

Citation Formats

Bruemmer, S.M., and Atteridge, D.G. Quantitative measurement and modeling of sensitization development in stainless steel. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Bruemmer, S.M., & Atteridge, D.G. Quantitative measurement and modeling of sensitization development in stainless steel. United States.
Bruemmer, S.M., and Atteridge, D.G. 1992. "Quantitative measurement and modeling of sensitization development in stainless steel". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_10186134,
title = {Quantitative measurement and modeling of sensitization development in stainless steel},
author = {Bruemmer, S.M. and Atteridge, D.G.},
abstractNote = {The state-of-the-art to quantitatively measure and model sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels is assessed and critically analyzed. A modeling capability is evolved and validated using a diverse experimental data base. Quantitative predictions are demonstrated for simple and complex thermal and thermomechanical treatments. Commercial stainless steel heats ranging from high-carbon Type 304 and 316 to low-carbon Type 304L and 316L have been examined including many heats which correspond to extra-low-carbon, nuclear-grade compositions. Within certain limits the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test was found to give accurate and reproducible measurements of the degree of sensitization (DOS) in Type 304 and 316 stainless steels. EPR test results are used to develop the quantitative data base and evolve/validate the quantitative modeling capability. This thesis represents a first step to evolve methods for the quantitative assessment of structural reliability in stainless steel components and weldments. Assessments will be based on component-specific information concerning material characteristics, fabrication history and service exposure. Methods will enable fabrication (e.g., welding and repair welding) procedures and material aging effects to be evaluated and ensure adequate cracking resistance during the service lifetime of reactor components. This work is being conducted by the Oregon Graduate Institute with interactive input from personnel at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 9
}

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  • The state-of-the-art to quantitatively measure and model sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels is assessed and critically analyzed. A modeling capability is evolved and validated using a diverse experimental data base. Quantitative predictions are demonstrated for simple and complex thermal and thermomechanical treatments. Commercial stainless steel heats ranging from high-carbon Type 304 and 316 to low-carbon Type 304L and 316L have been examined including many heats which correspond to extra-low-carbon, nuclear-grade compositions. Within certain limits the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test was found to give accurate and reproducible measurements of the degree of sensitization (DOS) in Type 304 and 316more » stainless steels. EPR test results are used to develop the quantitative data base and evolve/validate the quantitative modeling capability. This thesis represents a first step to evolve methods for the quantitative assessment of structural reliability in stainless steel components and weldments. Assessments will be based on component-specific information concerning material characteristics, fabrication history and service exposure. Methods will enable fabrication (e.g., welding and repair welding) procedures and material aging effects to be evaluated and ensure adequate cracking resistance during the service lifetime of reactor components. This work is being conducted by the Oregon Graduate Institute with interactive input from personnel at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.« less
  • The current state-of-the-art to quantitatively measure and model sensitization development in austenitic stainless steels is assessed and critically analyzed. A modeling capability is evolved and validated using a diverse experimental data base. Quantitative predictions are demonstrated for simple and complex thermal and thermomechanical treatments. Commercial stainless steel heats ranging from high-carbon Type 304 and 316 to low-carbon Type 304L and 316L have been examined including many heats which correspond to extra-low-carbon, nuclear-grade compositions. Within certain limits the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test was found to give accurate and reproducible measurements of the degree of sensitization (DOS) in Type 304 andmore » 316 stainless steels. EPR test results are used to develop the quantitative data base and evolve/validate the quantitative modeling capability. This thesis represents a first step to evolve methods for the quantitative assessment of structural reliability in stainless steel components and weldments. Assessments will be based on component-specific information concerning material characteristics, fabrication history and service exposure. Methods will enable fabrication (e.g., welding and repair welding) procedures and material aging effects to be evaluated and ensure adequate cracking resistance during the service lifetime of reactor components. 146 refs., 84 figs., 6 tabs.« less
  • An analytical model has been developed for predicting thermomechanical effects on the development of grain boundary chromium depletion in austenitic stainless steel as a first step in predicting intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. Model development and validation is based on sensitization development analysis of over 30 Type 316 and 304 stainless steel heats. The data base included analysis of deformation effects on resultant sensitization development. Continuous cooling sensitization behavior is examined and modeled with and without strain. Gas tungsten arc girth pipe weldments are also characterized by experimental measurements of heat affected zone temperatures, strains and sensitization during/after each pass;more » pass by pass thermal histories are also predicted. The model is then used to assess pipe chemistry changes on chromium depletion changes.« less
  • An analytical model has been developed for predicting thermomechanical effects on the development of grain boundary chromium depletion in austenitic stainless steel as a first step in predicting intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. Model development and validation is based on sensitization development analysis of over 30 Type 316 and 304 stainless steel heats. The data base included analysis of deformation effects on resultant sensitization development. Continuous cooling sensitization behavior is examined and modeled with and without strain. Gas tungsten arc girth pipe weldments are also characterized by experimental measurements of heat affected zone temperatures, strains and sensitization during/after each pass;more » pass by pass thermal histories are also predicted. The model is then used to assess pipe chemistry changes on chromium depletion changes.« less
  • Stainless steel is the most versatile, corrosion-resistant alloy for engineering structures. Applications encompass a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to elevated and stainless steels are used in various industries including power production, chemical and petrochemical, food processing, dairy and waste handling/processing. In each case, resistance to general corrosion in aggressive environmental conditions justifies its selection. Unfortunately, like most metal systems which form passive films for corrosion resistance, stainless steels are susceptible to localized attack under certain environmental conditions. The primary forms of this localized attack are pitting, intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Sensitization is often directlymore » responsible for the latter two and can also have an effect on pit initiation. The present work reviews the basic approach to model sensitization (chromium depletion) development in unstabilized, austenitic stainless steels. A theoretically-based, empirically-modified model is presented to quantitatively predict material degree of sensitization (DOS). Individual model components are discussed and compared to experimental results. Finally, overall model predictions are assessed relative to a large sensitization data base. More detailed information concerning this data base and model evolution has been reported elsewhere. 42 refs., 18 figs.« less