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Title: Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets

Abstract

Complex target structures are necessary to take full advantage of the unique laboratory environment created by inertial confinement fusion experiments. For example, uses-of-ignition targets that contain a thin layer of a low density nanoporous material inside a spherical ablator shell allow placing dopants in direct contact with the DT fuel. The ideal foam for this application is a low-density hydrocarbon foam that is strong enough to survive wetting with cryogenic hydrogen, and low enough in density (density less than {approx}30 mg/cc) to not reduce the yield of the target. Here, we discuss the fabrication foam-lined uses-of-ignition targets, and the development of low-density foams that can be used for this application. Much effort has been directed over the last 20 years toward the development of spherical foam targets for direct-drive and fast-ignition experiments. In these targets, the spherical foam shell is used to define the shape of the cryogenic DT fuel layer, or acts as a surrogate to simulate the cryogenic fuel layer. These targets are fabricated from relatively high-density aerogels (>100 mg/cc) and coated with a few micron thick permeation barrier. With exception of the above mentioned fast ignition targets, the wall of these targets is typically larger than 100more » microns. In contrast, the fusion application targets for indirect-drive experiments on NIF will require a much thinner foam shell surrounded by a much thicker ablator shell. The design requirements for both types of targets are compared in Table 1. The foam shell targets for direct-drive experiments can be made in large quantities and with reasonably high yields using an encapsulation technique pioneered by Takagi et al. in the early 90's. In this approach, targets are made by first generating unsupported foam shells using a triple-orifice droplet generator, followed by coating the dried foam shells with a thin permeation barrier. However, this approach is difficult, if not impossible, to transfer to the lower density and thinner wall foam shells required for indirect-drive uses-of-ignition targets for NIF that then would have to be coated with an at least hundred-micron-thick ablator film. So far, the thinnest shells that have been fabricated using the triple-orifice-droplet generator technique had a wall thickness of {approx}20 microns, but despite of being made from a higher-density foam formulation, the shells were mechanically very sensitive, difficult to dry, and showed large deviations from roundness. We thus decided to explore a different approach based on using prefabricated thick-walled spherical ablator shells as templates for the thin-walled foam shell. As in the case of the above mentioned encapsulation technique, the foam is made by sol-gel chemistry. However, our approach removes much the requirements on the mechanical stability of the foam shell as the foam shell is never handled in its free-standing form, and promises superior ablator uniformity and surface roughness. As discussed below, the success of this approach depends strongly on the availability of suitable aerogel chemistries (ideally pure hydrocarbon (CH)-based systems) with suitable rheological properties (high viscosity and high modulus near the gel point) that produce low-density and mechanically strong foams.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1018439
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-463691
TRN: US1103412
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AVAILABILITY; CHEMISTRY; COATINGS; CRYOGENICS; DESIGN; ENCAPSULATION; FABRICATION; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN; IGNITION; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; ROUGHNESS; SHAPE; STABILITY; TARGETS; THICKNESS; VISCOSITY

Citation Formats

Biener, J, Kucheyev, S O, Wang, M Y, Dawedeit, C, Worsley, M A, Kim, S H, Walton, C, Gilmer, G, Zepeda-Ruiz, L, Chernov, A A, Lee, J I, Willey, T M, Biener, M M, van Buuren, T, Wu, K J, Satcher, J H, and Hamza, A V. Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.2172/1018439.
Biener, J, Kucheyev, S O, Wang, M Y, Dawedeit, C, Worsley, M A, Kim, S H, Walton, C, Gilmer, G, Zepeda-Ruiz, L, Chernov, A A, Lee, J I, Willey, T M, Biener, M M, van Buuren, T, Wu, K J, Satcher, J H, & Hamza, A V. Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1018439
Biener, J, Kucheyev, S O, Wang, M Y, Dawedeit, C, Worsley, M A, Kim, S H, Walton, C, Gilmer, G, Zepeda-Ruiz, L, Chernov, A A, Lee, J I, Willey, T M, Biener, M M, van Buuren, T, Wu, K J, Satcher, J H, and Hamza, A V. Fri . "Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1018439. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1018439.
@article{osti_1018439,
title = {Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets},
author = {Biener, J and Kucheyev, S O and Wang, M Y and Dawedeit, C and Worsley, M A and Kim, S H and Walton, C and Gilmer, G and Zepeda-Ruiz, L and Chernov, A A and Lee, J I and Willey, T M and Biener, M M and van Buuren, T and Wu, K J and Satcher, J H and Hamza, A V},
abstractNote = {Complex target structures are necessary to take full advantage of the unique laboratory environment created by inertial confinement fusion experiments. For example, uses-of-ignition targets that contain a thin layer of a low density nanoporous material inside a spherical ablator shell allow placing dopants in direct contact with the DT fuel. The ideal foam for this application is a low-density hydrocarbon foam that is strong enough to survive wetting with cryogenic hydrogen, and low enough in density (density less than {approx}30 mg/cc) to not reduce the yield of the target. Here, we discuss the fabrication foam-lined uses-of-ignition targets, and the development of low-density foams that can be used for this application. Much effort has been directed over the last 20 years toward the development of spherical foam targets for direct-drive and fast-ignition experiments. In these targets, the spherical foam shell is used to define the shape of the cryogenic DT fuel layer, or acts as a surrogate to simulate the cryogenic fuel layer. These targets are fabricated from relatively high-density aerogels (>100 mg/cc) and coated with a few micron thick permeation barrier. With exception of the above mentioned fast ignition targets, the wall of these targets is typically larger than 100 microns. In contrast, the fusion application targets for indirect-drive experiments on NIF will require a much thinner foam shell surrounded by a much thicker ablator shell. The design requirements for both types of targets are compared in Table 1. The foam shell targets for direct-drive experiments can be made in large quantities and with reasonably high yields using an encapsulation technique pioneered by Takagi et al. in the early 90's. In this approach, targets are made by first generating unsupported foam shells using a triple-orifice droplet generator, followed by coating the dried foam shells with a thin permeation barrier. However, this approach is difficult, if not impossible, to transfer to the lower density and thinner wall foam shells required for indirect-drive uses-of-ignition targets for NIF that then would have to be coated with an at least hundred-micron-thick ablator film. So far, the thinnest shells that have been fabricated using the triple-orifice-droplet generator technique had a wall thickness of {approx}20 microns, but despite of being made from a higher-density foam formulation, the shells were mechanically very sensitive, difficult to dry, and showed large deviations from roundness. We thus decided to explore a different approach based on using prefabricated thick-walled spherical ablator shells as templates for the thin-walled foam shell. As in the case of the above mentioned encapsulation technique, the foam is made by sol-gel chemistry. However, our approach removes much the requirements on the mechanical stability of the foam shell as the foam shell is never handled in its free-standing form, and promises superior ablator uniformity and surface roughness. As discussed below, the success of this approach depends strongly on the availability of suitable aerogel chemistries (ideally pure hydrocarbon (CH)-based systems) with suitable rheological properties (high viscosity and high modulus near the gel point) that produce low-density and mechanically strong foams.},
doi = {10.2172/1018439},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1018439}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {12}
}