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Title: Weld pool phenomena

Abstract

During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
  2. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10183517
Report Number(s):
CONF-9308247-1
ON: DE94018965; TRN: 94:008803
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 46. annual meeting of the International Institute of Welding (IIW),Glasgow (United Kingdom),28 Aug - 4 Sep 1993; Other Information: PBD: [1994]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; WELDED JOINTS; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; HEAT TRANSFER; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; WELDING; 360101; 360104; PREPARATION AND FABRICATION

Citation Formats

David, S.A., Vitek, J.M., Zacharia, T., and DebRoy, T. Weld pool phenomena. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
David, S.A., Vitek, J.M., Zacharia, T., & DebRoy, T. Weld pool phenomena. United States.
David, S.A., Vitek, J.M., Zacharia, T., and DebRoy, T. 1994. "Weld pool phenomena". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10183517.
@article{osti_10183517,
title = {Weld pool phenomena},
author = {David, S.A. and Vitek, J.M. and Zacharia, T. and DebRoy, T.},
abstractNote = {During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month = 9
}

Conference:
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  • Information is presented concerning properties of arcs; arc roots and arc stability; metal transfer and stability; special techniques; mass flow in the weld pool and solidification; and weld pool behavior and formation of weld bead.
  • Studies of material and arc effects on penetration in GTA welding are summarized and the resulting conclusions given. Metal flow in the weld pool, the apparent control mechanism, is described as having two basically different patterns which lead to the observed fusion zone shapes. Experimental evidence for these patterns and their likely mode of interaction with the arc are also presented.
  • The use of ultrasonic sensors to detect discontinuities associated with the molten pool is one phase of a project to automate the welding process. In this work, ultrasonic sensors were used to interrogate the region around the molten/solid interface during gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The ultrasonic echoes from the interface and the molten pool provide information about the quality of the fusion zone and the molten pool. This information can be sent to a controller that can vary the welding parameters to correct the process. Previously ultrasonic shear waves were used to determine if the geometry of the molten/solidmore » interface was indicative of an acceptable weld. In this work, longitudinal waves were used to interrogate the molten weld pool for discontinuities. Unacceptable welding conditions that can result in porosity, incomplete penetration, or undercut were detected. 8 refs., 4 figs.« less
  • The optical spectral radiometric/laser reflectance method was used to noninvasively measure arc-side GTAW weld pool surface temperatures for 1.5 mm thick plate SS 304. Weld pool surface temperature isothermal contour and topology plots, as well as lengthwise centerline temperature profiles, were generated for welder currents of 38, 50, and 70 A; welder voltages of 7.5, 8.0 and 8.5 V, respectively; and welding speeds of 0.423, 1.270, and 2.540 mm/s (1, 3, and 6 in/min), respectively. Purpose of the work was to investigate the possibility of constitutional supercooling in the tail region of the weld pools. The peak weld pool temperaturesmore » in the range of 2000 to 2800/sup 0/K were often found to lead the electrode instead of lag it. These results were compared to those for experimental measurements of electron beam welds and predictions based on vaporization theory. Under most conditions, no two weld pools are alike and that the concept of quasi-steady-state pools does not represent reality. They are instead dynamically (stochastically) varying about mean value representative characteristics. No evidence of tail region constitutional supercooling was found.« less