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Title: Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis

Abstract

This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains the field data and laboratory analysis of each individual run. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (United States); Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10180119
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-430-6322b; ANL/ESD-22-Vol.2
ON: DE94011844; CRN: C/NREL--92-010; TRN: 94:008107
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-83CH10093; W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Jul 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; REFUSE DERIVED FUELS; COCOMBUSTION; COAL; CYCLONE COMBUSTORS; COMBUSTION PROPERTIES; EMISSION; municipal solid waste; refuse-derived fuel; boilers; power generation; cogeneration; 200103; 200500; WASTE-FUELED SYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Citation Formats

Ohlsson, O. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis. United States: N. p., 1994. Web. doi:10.2172/10180119.
Ohlsson, O. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis. United States. doi:10.2172/10180119.
Ohlsson, O. Fri . "Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis". United States. doi:10.2172/10180119. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10180119.
@article{osti_10180119,
title = {Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis},
author = {Ohlsson, O.},
abstractNote = {This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains the field data and laboratory analysis of each individual run. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.},
doi = {10.2172/10180119},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994},
month = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1994}
}

Technical Report:

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  • As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Program, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a multi-phase research study on the use of low-cost binder additives for improving densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) pellets. The laboratory test phase of this study, completed in 1985, examined more than 150 potential binders and binder combinations. The 13 most promising candidates from this laboratory testing were selected for field testing. The field work, was conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory`s test facility in Jacksonville, Florida during 1986. The results of these tests indicatedmore » that calcium hydroxide was the top-ranked binding agent. As the third and final phase of the multi-phase study, ANL conducted two full-scale co-fired combustion tests of calcium hydroxide-enhanced dRDF pellets and coal. The first test was conducted in 1987 in ANL`s spreader-stoker combustion unit. With the successful completion of the ANL tests, it appeared desirable to consider the feasibility of co-firing binder-enhanced drdf (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a cyclone/fired combustor since these combustors are more extensively used in the industrial and electric utility market place than the older, smaller spreader-stoker units. Commercial-scale tests for this study were conducted at Otter Tail Power Company`s 440-NW{sub e} cyclone-fired generating station located at Big Stone City, South Dakota. These tests were conducted under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). The CRADA participants included two national laboratories and three industrial partners. The study was designed to determine the following: the amount of pollutants, both gaseous and ashes, released during the co-firing of binder-enhanced dRDF pellets with coal in a cyclone-fired combustor; boiler efficiencies when combusting b-dRDF/coal blends; and the effect of firing b-dRDF/coal blends on plant operations.« less
  • This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains other supporting information, along with quality assurance documentation and safety and test plans. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at themore » desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.« less
  • The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 established numerical emission limitations for several air toxics including: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO). These regulated air toxics indirectly impact electric utilities and large industrial combustors which normally use high-sulfur containing coal as a fuel. Reductions of these flue-gas emissions to levels imposed by the CAAA can be both difficult and costly to these users of high sulfur coal. Additionally, the general public is also involved, both in terms of economic impacts (the price of obtaining compliance is reflected either in the utilities rate base,more » or the cost of products produced by the industrial sector), and in terms of environmental quality. Research studies funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) offers help with both problems. ANL, together with the University of North Texas (UNT) have developed an improved method for converting refuse (residential, commercial, and institutional waste) into an environmentally safe and economical fuel. In this method, recyclable metals, glass, and some plastic products are separated from the refuse. The remaining fraction, consisting primarily of cellulosic materials is then combined with a calcium hydroxide binding additive and formed into cylindrical pellets. Laboratory and pilot-scale research studies, followed by full-scale combustion tests undertaken by DOE, ANL and UNT, in June-July of 1987 indicated that binder-enhanced dRDF pellets can be successfully cofired with high sulfur coal in spreader-stoker combustors. This paper describes the cyclone-fired combustion tests, the flue gas emission and ash samples that were collected, the analyses that were performed on these samples, and the final test results.« less
  • This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein represent the second phase of a two-phase evaluation program. Phase 1 was conducted in an institutional spreader stoker heating boiler. During Phase 1 285 tons of dRDF were combusted. The results of that test are reported in EPA Report No. 600/2-80-095. Phase 2 demonstration testing was conducted in a larger industrial spreader stoker boiler. In a period of 402 hours, 1702more » tons of dRDF were co-fired with coal. An additional 231 hours of coal baseline testing was completed to provide a basis of comparison for the test results.« less
  • As existing landfills become filled to capacity and new landfills become more costly to site, the development of alternative disposal methods of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is becoming critical. In addition, the refuse being buried contains considerable quantities of energy that could potentially replace conventional fossil fuels. Some of the main problems of using MSW as a feedstock have been variability, biological and chemical instability, and poor fuel quality. An improved method for turning MSW into an environmentally safe and economical fuel has recently been developed. Recyclable metals, glass and some plastics are mechanically and manually separated from the waste.more » The remaining (combustible) fraction is combined with a calcium hydroxide binding additive, and formed into cylindrical pellets. These pellets are dense and odorless, can be stored for up to three years without significant biological or chemical degradation, and are easily transported. These pellets have been successfully confined with coal in existing spreader-stoker combustors. Other benefits include significant reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and CO{sub 2} in the flue gases, and the trapping of the chlorine combustion products (such as HCl) that are formed during the combustion process from the remaining plastics in the refuse. This paper describes the b-dRDF pellet/coal cofiring tests, emission and ash samples collected, analyses that were conducted on these samples, and study conclusions. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.« less