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Title: Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents

Abstract

Major and minor components of natural gas are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), using a thermal conductivity (TC). The best results obtained by these methods can report no better than 0.01 mole percent of each measured component. Even the extended method of analysis by flame ionization detector (FID) can only improve on the detection limit of hydrocarbons. The gas industry needs better information on all trace constituents of natural gas, whether native or inadvertently added during gas processing that may adversely influence the operation of equipment or the safety of the consumer. The presence of arsenic and mercury in some gas deposits have now been documented in international literature as causing not only human toxicity but also damaging to the field equipment. Yet, no standard methods of sampling and analysis exist to provide this much needed information. In this paper the authors report the results of a three-year program to develop an extensive array of sampling and analysis methods for speciation and measurement of trace constituents of natural gas. A cryogenic sampler operating at near 200 K ({minus}99 F) and at pipeline pressures up to 12.4 {times} 10{sup 6}Pa (1800 psig) has been developed to preconcentrate and recover allmore » trace constituents with boiling points above butanes. Specific analytical methods have been developed for speciating and measurement of many trace components (corresponding to US EPA air toxics) by GC-AED and GC-MS, and for determining various target compounds by other techniques. Moisture, oxygen and sulfur contents are measured on site using dedicated field instruments. Arsenic, mercury and radon are sampled by specific solid sorbents for subsequent laboratory analysis.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10177700
Report Number(s):
CONF-9309413-1
ON: TI94017654; TRN: AHC29421%%3
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1. international oil, gas & petrochemical congress,Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of),Sep 1993; Other Information: PBD: Sep 1993
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; NATURAL GAS; SAMPLING; GAS ANALYSIS; TRACE AMOUNTS; SAMPLERS; DESIGN; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; ARSENIC; MERCURY; RADON; QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; COMPILED DATA; ALKANES; ALKENES; DIENES; ALKYNES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN OXIDES; AROMATICS; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; HYDROGEN; OXYGEN; NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; CARBON MONOXIDE; AMMONIA; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; METHANOL; ACETONE; PHENOLS; ALDEHYDES; HALOGENS; PHOSPHORUS; ANTIMONY; COBALT; COPPER; GERMANIUM; IRON; LEAD; NICKEL; SELENIUM; SILICON; TIN; 033000; PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION

Citation Formats

Attari, A., and Chao, S. Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.2172/10177700.
Attari, A., & Chao, S. Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents. United States. doi:10.2172/10177700.
Attari, A., and Chao, S. Wed . "Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents". United States. doi:10.2172/10177700. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10177700.
@article{osti_10177700,
title = {Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents},
author = {Attari, A. and Chao, S.},
abstractNote = {Major and minor components of natural gas are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), using a thermal conductivity (TC). The best results obtained by these methods can report no better than 0.01 mole percent of each measured component. Even the extended method of analysis by flame ionization detector (FID) can only improve on the detection limit of hydrocarbons. The gas industry needs better information on all trace constituents of natural gas, whether native or inadvertently added during gas processing that may adversely influence the operation of equipment or the safety of the consumer. The presence of arsenic and mercury in some gas deposits have now been documented in international literature as causing not only human toxicity but also damaging to the field equipment. Yet, no standard methods of sampling and analysis exist to provide this much needed information. In this paper the authors report the results of a three-year program to develop an extensive array of sampling and analysis methods for speciation and measurement of trace constituents of natural gas. A cryogenic sampler operating at near 200 K ({minus}99 F) and at pipeline pressures up to 12.4 {times} 10{sup 6}Pa (1800 psig) has been developed to preconcentrate and recover all trace constituents with boiling points above butanes. Specific analytical methods have been developed for speciating and measurement of many trace components (corresponding to US EPA air toxics) by GC-AED and GC-MS, and for determining various target compounds by other techniques. Moisture, oxygen and sulfur contents are measured on site using dedicated field instruments. Arsenic, mercury and radon are sampled by specific solid sorbents for subsequent laboratory analysis.},
doi = {10.2172/10177700},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {9}
}