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Title: Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

Abstract

Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for themore » removal of cyanide from MGP sites.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States);Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10177373
Report Number(s):
CONF-920961--3
ON: TI94017669
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5. international symposium on gas, oil and environmental biotechnology,Chicago, IL (United States),21-24 Sep 1992; Other Information: PBD: [1992]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CYANIDES; REMOVAL; SOILS; REMEDIAL ACTION; COMPILED DATA; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; OXIDATION; BIODEGRADATION; PETROLEUM REFINERIES 020900; 020800; 540250; ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; SITE RESOURCE AND USE STUDIES

Citation Formats

Maka, A., Aronstein, B.N., Srivastava, V.J., Theis, T.L., and Young, T.C.. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/10177373.
Maka, A., Aronstein, B.N., Srivastava, V.J., Theis, T.L., & Young, T.C.. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide. United States. doi:10.2172/10177373.
Maka, A., Aronstein, B.N., Srivastava, V.J., Theis, T.L., and Young, T.C.. 1992. "Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide". United States. doi:10.2172/10177373. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10177373.
@article{osti_10177373,
title = {Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide},
author = {Maka, A. and Aronstein, B.N. and Srivastava, V.J. and Theis, T.L. and Young, T.C.},
abstractNote = {Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.},
doi = {10.2172/10177373},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report contains information on remediation technologies that can be used to manage source material and contaminated media it manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. Source material has been defined as free-phase hydrocarbons or tars and purifier box wastes. Contaminated media include soil, sediment, and groundwater which have been in contact with source material and which contain contaminants that are characteristic of the source material, i.e., volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic Compounds, cyanide, and selected metals. The remediation technologies described in this report were identified based upon their potential applicability to MGP site residuals, their commercial availability,more » and/or their previous full-scale applications at MGP or related sites such as petroleum refineries, wood treatino, facilities, or by-product coke manufacturing facilities. In this context, commercial availability means that the technology can be obtained from multiple vendors and can be incorporated into a full-scale site remediation. The major components of each technology are described and the use of the technology at an MGP site, including its advantages and limitations, are discussed. In addition, the key factors that influence the selection and performance of the technology are also present- ed.« less
  • To evaluate and develop technologies which are potentially applicable for remediation of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, bench-scale treatability tests of thermal desorption were performed. Soil samples from four MGP sites were characterized and subjected to various time-temperature conditions in a static laboratory oven. Residual concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and cyanide were measured and compared to initial levels to establish the relationship between removal efficiency and treatment conditions. The report presents the test results and describes the experimental procedures.
  • One component of EPRI research on the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances is to develop methods to estimate releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report contains results on the release of PAHs from contaminated soils at five MGP sites. Several methods exist for estimating the concentration of PAH in the groundwater in contact with these soils. These include: (a) pure compound solubility; (b) direct measurement of the interstitial water, and (c) the use of partition coefficients. The objective of this researchmore » was to evaluate laboratory procedures that can be used for such estimation. In addition to serving as a reliable analytical tool, a well defined protocol can help ensure consistency in results from different sites and for different conditions. In this research, the partition coefficients between the soil and water phases were determined for 16 PAH compounds utilizing five soils from MGP sites. A table lists the properties of the 16 PAH compounds examined in this project. The partition coefficients were determined by two approaches and the coefficients were used to estimate the concentrations of PAH in the soil pore-water.« less
  • The work performed in this study is Task 015, `In Situ Treatment of Manufactured Gas Plant Contaminated Soils Demonstration Program` of U. S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement DE-FC21-93MC30127. The contained recovery of oily waste (CROW(TM)) process removes organic contaminants from the subsurface by adaptation of secondary and heavy oil recovery technology. The technology was successfully tested in the laboratory as part of a project for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SITE Program`s Emerging Technology Program. The EPA advanced the CROW process to the SITE Demonstration Program based on the laboratory performance. Additional development of the process has includedmore » a pilot test at an active wood treatment facility. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of the CROW process for remediation of a site contaminated primarily with a dense organic fluid. The site selected for this demonstration project was a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site located in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.« less
  • The contained recovery of oily waste (CROW{trademark}) process developed by Western Research Institute (WRI) removes organic contaminants from the subsurface by means of adaptation of technology used for secondary and heavy oil recovery. The CROW technology was successfully tested in the laboratory as part of a project for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SITE Program's Emerging Technology Program (Johnson and Guffey 1990). The experimental program consisted of several one- and three-dimensional hot-water flushing tests to simulate the process. The tests were conducted with organically saturated, sand packed tubes and blocks. These experiments showed that hot-water flushing could reduce themore » organic contaminant content by approximately 60%. Further testing with totally biodegradable chemicals showed that the removal rate could be increased to approximately 90%. Additional testing showed that the CROW process did not hinder but helped in the biodegradation of the residual organics (Johnson and Leuschner 1992). Based on the laboratory performance of the process, the EPA advanced the process to the SITE Demonstration Program. Further development of the process has included the completion of a pilot test at an active wood treatment facility. The pilot test provided additional information for the design of a field-scale remediation effort in addition to verifying several of the prepilot design specifications and predictions. Verified by the pilot test were the abilities to: (1) establish and maintain desired injection and extraction rates, (2) heat the test area to the desired temperature, (3) achieve non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal rates equivalent to laboratory rates, and (4) show that the produced fluid can be treated for reinfection or disposal (Fahy et al. 1992).« less