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Title: Past and present of nuclear matter

Abstract

The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not evenmore » close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10174431
Report Number(s):
LBL-35589; CONF-930999-12
ON: DE94016874; TRN: 94:015658
DOE Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: NATO Advanced Study Institute on hot and dense nuclear matter,Bodrum (Turkey),26 Sep - 9 Oct 1993; Other Information: PBD: May 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; NUCLEAR MATTER; HEAVY ION REACTIONS; QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS; BEVALAC; QUARK MATTER; NUCLEAR FRAGMENTATION; PARTICLE RAPIDITY; 663110; 663450; GENERAL AND AVERAGE PROPERTIES OF NUCLEI AND NUCLEAR ENERGY LEVELS; HEAVY-ION-INDUCED REACTIONS AND SCATTERING

Citation Formats

Ritter, H.G. Past and present of nuclear matter. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Ritter, H.G. Past and present of nuclear matter. United States.
Ritter, H.G. Sun . "Past and present of nuclear matter". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10174431.
@article{osti_10174431,
title = {Past and present of nuclear matter},
author = {Ritter, H.G.},
abstractNote = {The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1994},
month = {5}
}

Conference:
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