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Title: A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

Abstract

A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10169564
Report Number(s):
DOE/CH-9201
ON: DE93016230; TRN: 93:016295
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Sep 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GROUND WATER; REMEDIAL ACTION; SOILS; PROGRESS REPORT; LEACHATES; FILTRATION; MIXTURES; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; STRONTIUM 90; CESIUM 137; BENZENE; LEAD; ION EXCHANGE; ADSORPTION; METALS; 054000; 540230; 540220; HEALTH AND SAFETY; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS MONITORING AND TRANSPORT; CHEMICALS MONITORING AND TRANSPORT

Citation Formats

Buckley, L.P., Killey, D.R.W., Vijayan, S., and Wong, P.C.F.. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/10169564.
Buckley, L.P., Killey, D.R.W., Vijayan, S., & Wong, P.C.F.. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report. United States. doi:10.2172/10169564.
Buckley, L.P., Killey, D.R.W., Vijayan, S., and Wong, P.C.F.. 1992. "A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report". United States. doi:10.2172/10169564. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10169564.
@article{osti_10169564,
title = {A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report},
author = {Buckley, L.P. and Killey, D.R.W. and Vijayan, S. and Wong, P.C.F.},
abstractNote = {A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.},
doi = {10.2172/10169564},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • 'The purpose of this research is to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that allow metal-reducing bacteria to be effective in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides. The study is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface microbial activity can effectively alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized for long time periods. The objectives are to: (1) develop an improved understanding of the rates and mechanisms of competing geochemical oxidation and microbiological reduction reactions that govern the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclidesmore » in the subsurface, and (2) quantify the conditions that optimize the microbial reduction of toxic metals and radionuclides, for the purpose of contaminant containment and remediation in heterogeneous systems that have competing geochemical oxidation, sorption, and organic ligands. The overall goal of this project is to use basic research to develop a cost effective remediation strategy that employs in-situ contaminant immobilzation. Specifically, the authors will develop active biowall technologies to contain priority EM contaminant plumes in groundwater. This report summarizes work after 1.5 y of a 3 y project.'« less
  • Radionuclide and metal contaminants are present in the vadose zone and groundwater throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy research and weapons complex. In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants represents a cost-effective treatment strategy that minimizes workers’ exposure to hazardous substances, does not require removal or transport of contaminants, and generally does not generate a secondary waste stream. We have investigated an in situ bioremediation approach that immobilizes radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Calcite, a common mineral in many aquifers and vadosemore » zones in the arid west, can incorporate divalent metals such as strontium, cadmium, lead, and cobalt into its crystal structure by the formation of a solid solution. Collaborative research undertaken by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), University of Idaho, and University of Toronto as part of this Environmental Management Science Program project has focused on in situ microbially-catalyzed urea hydrolysis, which results in an increase in pH, carbonate alkalinity, ammonium, calcite precipitation, and co-precipitation of divalent cations. In calcite-saturated aquifers, microbially facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. Key results of the project include: **Demonstrating the linkage between urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation in field and laboratory experiments **Observing strontium incorporation into calcite precipitate by urea hydrolyzers with higher distribution coefficient than in abiotic **Developing and applying molecular methods for characterizing microbial urease activity in groundwater including a quantitative PCR method for enumerating ureolytic bacteria **Applying the suite of developed molecular methods to assess the feasibility of the proposed bioremediation technique at a contaminated site located within the 100-N area of the Hanford, Washington site **Assessing the role of nitrification on the persistence of precipitated calcite by modifying primers for identification of the amoA gene region of various ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) for characterizing AOB in the field« less
  • OAK - 270 Microbially Induced Reduction to Toxic Metals and Radionuclides: Competing Geochemical and Enzymatic Processes
  • The Site 2 plant treats 38 MGD of municipal and to a lesser degree industrial wastewater. The blended primary/secondary sludge (approx 65-86% primary) is dewatered using centrifugation to about 18 to 25 percent solids. Sludge is fed to an eight-hearth incinerator at approximately 7.0 wet tons per hour. Emissions are controlled by a variable-throat venturi/impingement scrubber which uses secondary effluent as the scrubber liquor. Tests were conducted to determine particulate, metals, and organic emissions. In addition to sampling flue gases at the scrubber inlet and outlet, sludge feed, incinerator ash and scrubber inlet and outlet water was also sampled. Leadmore » had the highest scrubber inlet flue gas concentrations during both short-term and long-term tests. Emission rates of cadmium, nickel, chromium and arsenic were also detected. Average scrubber removal efficiencies exceeded 53 percent for all metals. All of the target volatile organics except 1,2 dichloroethane were detected in the flue gas samples. The species detected in the highest concentrations were acrylonitrile, toluene, benzene, and vinylchloride. Up to seven target semi-volatile compounds were detected in the flue gas samples with phenol being the most prominent.« less
  • The Site I plant treats 36MGD of wastewater and the blended primary/secondary sludge is dewatered to approximately 16 to 20 percent solids. Sludge is incinerated by a six-hearth unit at approximately 6.0 wet tons per hour. Emissions are controlled by a three tray impingement scrubber using either a mixture of primary and secondary effluent or just secondary effluent as the scrubber liquor. Tests were conducted to determine particulate, metals, and organic parameters of sludge, inlet scrubber water, and scrubber exhaust gases. Lead was the most prominent metal emission while beryllium was below the detection limit in the flue gas. Chromiummore » had the highest concentrations in the sludge and arsenic was below the detection limit. All target volatile organics were detected in the flue gas samples, while only 2 of the 14 species were detected in sludge feed and scrubber water samples. The most concentrated species found in the flue gas were benzene, acrylonitrile and tetrachloroethane. Only four of the target semi-volatile organics were found in the flue gas samples while none were found in sludge feed and scrubber water samples. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and three dichlorobenzenes were the compounds detected.« less