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Title: NON-MELT PROCESSING OF "LOW-COST", ARMSTRONG TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY POWDERS

Abstract

In the last decade, a considerable effort has been made to develop new methods for producing low cost titanium and titanium powders. The Armstrong process is a new method of producing titanium powder via reducing TiCl4 vapor in molten sodium. The process is scalable, and can be used to produce pre-alloyed powders. Non-melt processing and powder metallurgy approaches are economically viable with the commercially pure powders. In this investigation, several non-melt processing technologies, including vacuum hot pressing, extrusion, roll compaction, and forging techniques, will be evaluated using the Armstrong titanium powders. The metallurgical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the processed titanium samples will be discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. Ametek, Inc.
  3. International Titanium Powder
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1016036
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Light Metals Technology Conference 2007, Saint-Sauveur, Quebec, Canada, 20070924, 20070926
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EXTRUSION; FORGING; HOT PRESSING; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; POWDER METALLURGY; PROCESSING; SODIUM; TITANIUM; TITANIUM ALLOYS

Citation Formats

Peter, William H, Blue, Craig A, Clive, Scorey, Ernst, Bill, McKernan, John, Kiggans, Jim, Rivard, John D, and Yu, Dr. Charlie. NON-MELT PROCESSING OF "LOW-COST", ARMSTRONG TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY POWDERS. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Peter, William H, Blue, Craig A, Clive, Scorey, Ernst, Bill, McKernan, John, Kiggans, Jim, Rivard, John D, & Yu, Dr. Charlie. NON-MELT PROCESSING OF "LOW-COST", ARMSTRONG TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY POWDERS. United States.
Peter, William H, Blue, Craig A, Clive, Scorey, Ernst, Bill, McKernan, John, Kiggans, Jim, Rivard, John D, and Yu, Dr. Charlie. Mon . "NON-MELT PROCESSING OF "LOW-COST", ARMSTRONG TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY POWDERS". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1016036,
title = {NON-MELT PROCESSING OF "LOW-COST", ARMSTRONG TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY POWDERS},
author = {Peter, William H and Blue, Craig A and Clive, Scorey and Ernst, Bill and McKernan, John and Kiggans, Jim and Rivard, John D and Yu, Dr. Charlie},
abstractNote = {In the last decade, a considerable effort has been made to develop new methods for producing low cost titanium and titanium powders. The Armstrong process is a new method of producing titanium powder via reducing TiCl4 vapor in molten sodium. The process is scalable, and can be used to produce pre-alloyed powders. Non-melt processing and powder metallurgy approaches are economically viable with the commercially pure powders. In this investigation, several non-melt processing technologies, including vacuum hot pressing, extrusion, roll compaction, and forging techniques, will be evaluated using the Armstrong titanium powders. The metallurgical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the processed titanium samples will be discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • No abstract prepared.
  • Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrumentmore » was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.« less
  • The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operationsmore » to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.« less
  • A review of the mechanical property data needed for the process simulation of cold pressing was conducted. The material property data for the newly developed low-cost commercially pure titanium, CP-Ti, powders made by Armstrong process was presented. The following data was obtained from mechanical testing: Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, failure line for the plasticity model. The Youngs modulus and bulk modulus were obtained from the uniaxial compression tests of a cylinder. The failure line for the plasticity model was obtained from failure compression tests. Materials testing software was written to provide automatic test control and data acquisition during material testing,more » such as axial displacement, axial stress, radial strain, and failure stress.« less
  • A computational methodology is presented for the process simulation of cold pressing of Armstrong CP-Ti Powders. The computational model was implemented in the commercial finite element program ABAQUSTM. Since the powder deformation and consolidation is governed by specific pressure-dependent constitutive equations, several solution algorithms were developed for the ABAQUS user material subroutine, UMAT. The solution algorithms were developed for computing the plastic strain increments based on an implicit integration of the nonlinear yield function, flow rule, and hardening equations that describe the evolution of the state variables. Since ABAQUS requires the use of a full Newton-Raphson algorithm for the stress-strainmore » equations, an algorithm for obtaining the tangent/linearization moduli, which is consistent with the return-mapping algorithm, also was developed. Numerical simulation results are presented for the cold compaction of the Ti powders. Several simulations were conducted for cylindrical samples with different aspect ratios. The numerical simulation results showed that for the disk samples, the minimum von Mises stress was approximately half than its maximum value. The hydrostatic stress distribution exhibits a variation smaller than that of the von Mises stress. It was found that for the disk and cylinder samples the minimum hydrostatic stresses were approximately 23 and 50% less than its maximum value, respectively. It was also found that the minimum density was noticeably affected by the sample height.« less