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Title: Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

Abstract

Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunitiesmore » to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (Us) Incorporated
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1015866
DOE Contract Number:
FC26-08NT01911
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; CAPITALIZED COST; COMBUSTION; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; ENGINES; FUEL CELLS; NATURAL GAS; OPERATING COST; PIPELINES; PRICES; RELIABILITY; SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION; STABILITY; SYNTHESIS GAS; TESTING

Citation Formats

Mark Scotto. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.2172/1015866.
Mark Scotto. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines. United States. doi:10.2172/1015866.
Mark Scotto. Sun . "Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines". United States. doi:10.2172/1015866. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1015866.
@article{osti_1015866,
title = {Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines},
author = {Mark Scotto},
abstractNote = {Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.},
doi = {10.2172/1015866},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2010},
month = {Sun May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2010}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in manymore » cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.« less
  • The emissions data base and report program for stationary reciprocating natural gas engines and gas turbines is contained on four 1.2-megabyte diskettes and is accompanied by a user's manual. The data base contains both emissions and performance data taken from in-service natural gas engines in use by the gas pipeline transmission industry. The software is designed to be operated on an IBM or compatible personal computer and must be run in a directory containing th dBase III+ programs and the Quickcode utility program. The user's manual describes the inputs to and outputs from the data base update and report program,more » EMIMAIN. EMIMAIN is an interactive dBase III+ command routine which displays a series of menus to the user and allows one to either update the data bases or print reports containing data from the data bases. In order to use the software on the diskette, dBase III+ and Quickcode software packages must be purchased.« less
  • This document is a user's manual for a computer data base of emissions data for stationary reciprocating natural gas engines and gas turbines in use by the Gas Pipeline Transmission Industry. The data base contains both emissions and performance data taken from in-service natural gas engines. The data base is designed to be operated as an IBM compatible personal computer, and a disk is provided in the back pocket of the document.
  • This publication compiles the available exhaust emission data for stationary reciprocating engines and gas turbines used by the natural gas pipeline transmission industry into a single, easy-to-use source. Data in the original issue and the revisions were obtained from projects sponsored by the A.G.A. PRC and from inhouse projects within a number of the A.G.A. member companies. Additional data included in this reissue were obtained from additional emissions measurement projects sponsored by the A.G.A. PRC, and from A.G.A. member companies and natural gas engine manufacturers.
  • Field tests were performed on five natural gas reciprocating engines. Four engines were retrofitted with the following NOx control technologies: a nonselective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system retrofitted on a 4-cycle rich-burn engine; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system retrofitted on a 4-cycle lean-burn engine; and combustion modifications (PreCombustion Chamber (PCC)) retrofitted on two lean-burn engines (one 2-cycle and one 4-cycle). These controls are candidate technologies to reduce NOx emissions from natural gas prime movers. The fifth engine, a 2-cycle lean-burn engine, was tested without NOx controls. The field test program quantified the effects of these NOx controls on pollutant emissions,more » and found that, in some cases, NOx reduction can result in increased carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (TUHC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and formaldehyde emissions. Benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde were the major air-toxic compounds found in the exhausts of all engines tested, at concentrations of less than 0.3 ppm, for benzene and toluene, and 20 ppm, for formaldehyde. In general, benzene and toluene emissions decreased with the addition of either combustion modification and exhaust gas treatment controls. Formaldehyde emissions decreased across the rich-burn catalysts. Volatile organic compound (VOC, measured as NMHC) emissions increased when lean-burn combustion modifications and the SCR control system were applied, but decreased when the NSCR control system was applied.« less