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Title: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

Abstract

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature formore » some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). In-house Research
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1015368
Report Number(s):
NETL-TPR-1654
TRN: US201111%%568
DOE Contract Number:
XX0000000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5th US Combustion Meeting, Organized by the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute and Hosted by the University of California at San Diego March 25-28, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; AIR; COMBUSTION; ENGINES; GAS TURBINES; IMPORTS; LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS; METHANE; NATURAL GAS; POLLUTANTS; PROPANE

Citation Formats

D. Straub, D. Ferguson, K. Casleton, and G. Richards. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
D. Straub, D. Ferguson, K. Casleton, & G. Richards. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions. United States.
D. Straub, D. Ferguson, K. Casleton, and G. Richards. Wed . "Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1015368,
title = {Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions},
author = {D. Straub and D. Ferguson and K. Casleton and G. Richards},
abstractNote = {U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).more » The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.« less
  • A comparative evaluation of six transit bus engines (three diesel, one propane (LPG), one natural gas for vehicles (NGV), and one methanol) has been performed. The purpose of the program was to assess the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of current state-of-the-art large alternative fuel engines. Engine dynamometer test work was performed at the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF) which allowed a detailed comparison of several alternative-fuelled engines versus their diesel counterparts. Test data includes steady-state brake-specific fuel consumption maps, torque and horsepower curves. Transient performance, fuel consumption and emissions information came from computer-controlled engine dynamometer runs of the Advanced Designmore » Bus (ADB) test cycle.« less
  • Propane and natural gas vehicles are perceived by the public as having low exhaust emissions. However, the results of an emissions inspection program started in British Columbia in 1992 indicate that this is not usually the case. The study reported in this paper addresses two questions which arose from these results: ``Why do propane and natural gas vehicles fail the inspection in such large numbers?`` and ``What needs to be done to fix the problem?`` The project comprises three phases. Phase one is to establish the profile of the alternative fuel vehicle fleet in the Province; the way in whichmore » they usually fail emissions inspection; the types of repairs received after failing; and the effectiveness of those repairs in reducing emissions. Phase two is to formulate general repair strategies which can be applied in the great majority of cases and therefore effectively become recognized by government agencies, the conversion industry, and the repair industry. The desire is to achieve the maximum emissions reduction benefit as effectively as possible, for as many vehicles as possible, all within acceptable costs. Phase three will be full implementation of vehicle upgrade requirements throughout the Province. This is scheduled to start January 1996 in the Lower Fraser Valley, and expand to the whole province in July 1996. This paper is essentially concerned with phase one of the project.« less
  • Simple natural gas burner modifications which resulted in significant reduction in NO emission levels are described. These modifications can be tilized on existing equipment or can be incorporated in the design of new combustion systems. Because of the influence of furnace geometry and multiple flame interactions on NO emission levels, these modifications may not result in the same reduction in emission levels observed during the test program. However, applying the principles of aerodynamic NO control developed by this program, coupled with the use of suitable monitoring equipment, reductions in NO emission levels up to 60% are possible.
  • Field tests were performed on five natural gas reciprocating engines. Four engines were retrofitted with the following NOx control technologies: a nonselective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system retrofitted on a 4-cycle rich-burn engine; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system retrofitted on a 4-cycle lean-burn engine; and combustion modifications (PreCombustion Chamber (PCC)) retrofitted on two lean-burn engines (one 2-cycle and one 4-cycle). These controls are candidate technologies to reduce NOx emissions from natural gas prime movers. The fifth engine, a 2-cycle lean-burn engine, was tested without NOx controls. The field test program quantified the effects of these NOx controls on pollutant emissions,more » and found that, in some cases, NOx reduction can result in increased carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (TUHC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and formaldehyde emissions. Benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde were the major air-toxic compounds found in the exhausts of all engines tested, at concentrations of less than 0.3 ppm, for benzene and toluene, and 20 ppm, for formaldehyde. In general, benzene and toluene emissions decreased with the addition of either combustion modification and exhaust gas treatment controls. Formaldehyde emissions decreased across the rich-burn catalysts. Volatile organic compound (VOC, measured as NMHC) emissions increased when lean-burn combustion modifications and the SCR control system were applied, but decreased when the NSCR control system was applied.« less