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Title: Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program

Abstract

The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirements on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. TENERA, L.P., San Jose, CA (United States)|[TENERA, L.P., Bethesda, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); TENERA, L.P., San Jose, CA (United States); TENERA, L.P., Bethesda, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10139313
Report Number(s):
DOE/ID-10291; MISC-90120
ON: DE92012356
DOE Contract Number:
AC07-76ID01570
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Dec 1991
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; CONTAINMENT; FAILURES; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; MITIGATION; BWR TYPE REACTORS; PWR TYPE REACTORS; CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; CORIUM; CONCRETES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; TORNADOES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; REACTOR SAFETY; HEAT TRANSFER; HYDRAULICS; HYDROGEN; DETONATIONS; ATWS; BLOWDOWN; MELTDOWN; LOSS OF COOLANT; PROJECTILES; 220900; 210100; 210200; POWER REACTORS, NONBREEDING, LIGHT-WATER MODERATED, BOILING WATER COOLED; POWER REACTORS, NONBREEDING, LIGHT-WATER MODERATED, NONBOILING WATER COOLED

Citation Formats

Additon, S.L., Blanchard, D.P., Leaver, D.E., and Persinko, D. Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Additon, S.L., Blanchard, D.P., Leaver, D.E., & Persinko, D. Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program. United States.
Additon, S.L., Blanchard, D.P., Leaver, D.E., and Persinko, D. 1991. "Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_10139313,
title = {Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program},
author = {Additon, S.L. and Blanchard, D.P. and Leaver, D.E. and Persinko, D.},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirements on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1991,
month =
}

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  • The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirementsmore » on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant.« less
  • The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy requires that a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) be performed for all future nuclear power plant designs. In support of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Requirements Document effort, the Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program has prepared interim PRAs based on the EPRI requirements for advanced pressurized water reactor and advanced boiling water reactor designs. These PRAs presently address internal initiating events (e.g., reactor trip,loss of off-site power, and loss-of-coolant accidents). This report identifies the external events that will be excluded from detailed quantitative analysis in the EPRI PRAs. In addition, the rationale andmore » justification of inclusion or exclusion is provided. The conclusions drawn from the external event evaluations described in this report indicate seismic events need to be analyzed in detail in the EPRI PRAs. The effects of a tornado strike at the plant, resulting in a prolonged loss of off-site power, must also be considered. All other external events (including fire and flooding events) can be excluded from detailed quantitative analysis in the EPRI PRA based in improved plant design and siting criteria. However, the exclusion of many external events requires that a design and site verification be performed after a site and design are selected to ensure that the design and site do indeed meet the criteria used to exclude these events. 8 refs.« less
  • The current knowledge base on high pressure melt ejection (HPME) and its consequence, direct containment heating (DCH), has been examined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). A two-pronged approach for the design of evolutionary advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) has been developed for minimizing the potential for early containment failure due to an HPME event that involves DCH. Criteria are provided for APWR reactor cavity and lower containment configurations to limit the amount of debris and energy that could enter the upper containment atmosphere; this provides a passivemore » method for mitigating DCH. Also, the means for rapid, deliberate reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization are provided in APWRs; depressurization can be used prior to reactor vessel meltthrough to minimize high pressure driving forces, thereby preventing DCH. This report summarizes the technical bases, both experimental and analytical, supporting a conclusion that these design approaches preclude early containment failure due to HPME for risk-relevant sequences in APWRs. 50 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSARmore » for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences.« less
  • This report presents an overview of the steam explosion issue in nuclear reactor safety and our approach to assessing it. Key physics, models, and computational tools are described, and illustrative results are presented for ex-vessel steam explosions in an open pool geometry. An extensive set of appendices facilitate access to previously reported work that is an integral part of this effort. These appendices include key developments in our approach, key advances in our understanding from physical and numerical experiments, and details of the most advanced computational results presented in this report. Of major significance are the following features: A consistentmore » two-dimensional treatment for both premixing and propagation which in practical settings are ostensibly at least two-dimensional phenomena; experimental demonstration of voiding and microinteractions which represent key behaviors in premixing and propagation respectively; demonstration of the explosion venting phenomena in open pool geometries which, therefore, can be counted on as a very important mitigative feature; and introduction of the idea of penetration cutoff as a key mechanism prohibiting large-scale premixing in usual ex-vessel situations involving high pour velocities and subcooled pools. This report is intended as an overview and is to be followed by code manuals for PM-ALPHA and ESPROSE.m, respective verification reports, and application documents for reactor-specific applications. The applications will employ the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) to address the safety importance of potential steam explosions phenomena in evaluated severe accidents for passive Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs).« less