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Title: A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

Abstract

This report is a guide to the work accomplished by the Environmental Monitoring Data Task, which is one of the tasks in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task was to recover, evaluate, process, and/or reconstruct the environmental monitoring data for the period 1945--1972. The period of time for which environmental monitoring data were sought was determined by the start-up and shut-down dates of the Hanford facilities that emitted the majority of radionuclides to the two major pathways: air and the Columbia River. Radionuclide emissions to the air were mainly the result of the operation of the chemical separations plants from 1944--1972 (Heeb 1994). Radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River were mainly the result of the operation of the single-pass production reactors from 1944--1971 (Heeb and Bates 1994). Therefore, the historical environmental monitoring data sought were for the period 1945--1972. Within the period of 1945--1972, specific periods of interest to the HEDR Project vary depending on the pathway. For example, 1945--1951 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the air and hence vegetation uptake of radionuclides, while 1956--1965 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River and hencemore » fish uptake of radionuclides. However, adequate historical data were not always available for the periods of interest. In the case of vegetation measurements, conversion and correction factors had to be developed to convert the historical measurements to modern standard measurements. Table S.1 lists the reports that explain these conversion and correction factors. In the case of Columbia River fish and waterfowl, bioconcentration factors were developed for use in any year where the river pathway data are insufficient.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10135407
Report Number(s):
PNWD-2226-HEDR
ON: DE94008731; TRN: 94:003994
DOE Contract Number:
AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Mar 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; COLUMBIA RIVER; RADIOECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE PATHWAY; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; MONITORING; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; RADIATION DOSES; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE; 560101; 054000; 540330; 540230; DOSIMETRY AND MONITORING; HEALTH AND SAFETY; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS MONITORING AND TRANSPORT

Citation Formats

Thiede, M.E., Bates, D.J., Mart, E.I., and Hanf, R.W. A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. United States: N. p., 1994. Web. doi:10.2172/10135407.
Thiede, M.E., Bates, D.J., Mart, E.I., & Hanf, R.W. A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. United States. doi:10.2172/10135407.
Thiede, M.E., Bates, D.J., Mart, E.I., and Hanf, R.W. Tue . "A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project". United States. doi:10.2172/10135407. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10135407.
@article{osti_10135407,
title = {A guide to environmental monitoring data, 1945--1972: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project},
author = {Thiede, M.E. and Bates, D.J. and Mart, E.I. and Hanf, R.W.},
abstractNote = {This report is a guide to the work accomplished by the Environmental Monitoring Data Task, which is one of the tasks in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task was to recover, evaluate, process, and/or reconstruct the environmental monitoring data for the period 1945--1972. The period of time for which environmental monitoring data were sought was determined by the start-up and shut-down dates of the Hanford facilities that emitted the majority of radionuclides to the two major pathways: air and the Columbia River. Radionuclide emissions to the air were mainly the result of the operation of the chemical separations plants from 1944--1972 (Heeb 1994). Radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River were mainly the result of the operation of the single-pass production reactors from 1944--1971 (Heeb and Bates 1994). Therefore, the historical environmental monitoring data sought were for the period 1945--1972. Within the period of 1945--1972, specific periods of interest to the HEDR Project vary depending on the pathway. For example, 1945--1951 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the air and hence vegetation uptake of radionuclides, while 1956--1965 was the peak period for radionuclide emissions to the Columbia River and hence fish uptake of radionuclides. However, adequate historical data were not always available for the periods of interest. In the case of vegetation measurements, conversion and correction factors had to be developed to convert the historical measurements to modern standard measurements. Table S.1 lists the reports that explain these conversion and correction factors. In the case of Columbia River fish and waterfowl, bioconcentration factors were developed for use in any year where the river pathway data are insufficient.},
doi = {10.2172/10135407},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1994},
month = {Tue Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1994}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includesmore » the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.« less
  • The purpose of this letter report is to identify documents that record batch, daily, or selected monthly separations processes operating information at the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1972. The information found in these documents is needed to develop the source terms necessary to make dose estimates. The documents have been identified, located, declassified if necessary, evaluated, and made available to the HEDR Project in general, the HEDR Task 03 (Source Terms) in particular, and the public. Complete bibliographic citations and some sample pages from the Hanford separations processes documents are included.
  • A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine externalmore » dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.« less
  • This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.
  • This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.