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Title: Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

Abstract

Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
  2. New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10135067
Report Number(s):
NUREG/CR-5842; ANL-92/8
ON: TI92010486
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Mar 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; URANIUM; INTESTINAL ABSORPTION; NEPTUNIUM; PLUTONIUM; PLUTONIUM 236; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; PLUTONIUM 238; NEPTUNIUM 239; NEPTUNIUM 237; URANIUM 233; URANIUM 236; BABOONS; INGESTION; GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; METABOLISM; SKELETON; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; 560162; 560161; ANIMALS, PLANTS, MICROORGANISMS, AND CELLS; MAN

Citation Formats

Bhattacharyya, M.H., Larsen, R.P., Oldham, R.D., Moretti, E.S., Cohen, N., Ralston, L.G., and Ayres, L. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Bhattacharyya, M.H., Larsen, R.P., Oldham, R.D., Moretti, E.S., Cohen, N., Ralston, L.G., & Ayres, L. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans. United States.
Bhattacharyya, M.H., Larsen, R.P., Oldham, R.D., Moretti, E.S., Cohen, N., Ralston, L.G., and Ayres, L. 1992. "Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_10135067,
title = {Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans},
author = {Bhattacharyya, M.H. and Larsen, R.P. and Oldham, R.D. and Moretti, E.S. and Cohen, N. and Ralston, L.G. and Ayres, L.},
abstractNote = {Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 3
}

Technical Report:
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  • Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.
  • The metabolism of neptunium and protactinium was studied in adult female baboons following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Immediately following intravenous injection (10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -10/ mg Np per kg body wt), neptunium cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 0.2%), and was excreted predominantly via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a biological half-time of approx.100 days in liver and 1.5 +- 0.2 yr in bone. In comparison, injected protactinium (10/sup -9/ mg/kg) was retained in blood in higher concentrations andmore » was initially eliminated in urine to a lesser extent (6 +- 3%). In vivo measurements indicated that protactinium was retained in bone (65 +- 0.3%) with a half-time of 3.5 +- 0.6 yr. Differences in the physicochemical states of the neptunium or protactinium solutions injected did not alter the metabolic behavior of these nuclides. The gastrointestinal absorption value for neptunium in two fasted baboons, sacrificed at 1 day post administration, was determined to be 0.92 +- 0.04%. Of the total amount of neptunium absorbed, 52 +- 3% was retained in bone, 6 +- 2% was in liver, and 42 +- 0.1% was excreted in urine. A method was developed to estimate GI absorption values for both nuclides in baboons which were not sacrificed. Absorption values calculated by this method for neptunium and protactinium in fasted baboons were 1.8 +- 0.8% and 0.65 +- 0.01%, respectively. Values for fed animals were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those for fasted animals. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)« less
  • The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium was measured in mice, rats, and dogs under conditions relevant to setting drinking water standards. The fractional GI absorption of Pu(VI) in adult mice was 2 x 10/sup -4/ (0.02%) in fed mice and 2 x 10/sup -3/ (0.2%) in fasted mice. The GI absorption of plutonium was independent of plutonium oxidation state, administration medium, and plutonium concentration; absorption was dependent upon animal species, state of animal fasting, state of Pu(IV) hydrolysis, and age of the animal. Fractional GI absorption values ranged from 3 x 10/sup -5/ (0.003%) for hydrolyzed Pu(IV) administered to fedmore » adult mice to 7 x 10/sup -3/ (0.7%) for Pu(VI) administered to fed neonatal rats. From analysis of our data, we suggested values of f/sub 1/ (the fraction transferred from gut to blood in humans) for use in establishment of oral limits of exposure to plutonium. For an acute exposure in the occupational setting, we proposed one value of f/sub 1/ for fed (2 x 10/sup -4/) and one for fasted (2 x 10/sup -3/) individuals. For the environmental setting, we developed two approaches to obtaining values of f/sub 1/; suggested values were 6 x 10/sup -4/ and 4 x 10/sup -3/, respectively. Both approaches took into account effects of animal age and fasting. We discussed uncertainties in proposed values of f/sub 1/ and made recommendations for further research. 41 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs.« less