skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report

Abstract

Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980`s became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States). Office of Precipitation Quality
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10125550
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/60635-T1; SWS/CR-497; COO-1199-68
ON: DE92008246
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-88ER60635
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Aug 1990
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; PRECIPITATION SCAVENGING; BIBLIOGRAPHIES; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; SAMPLING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; AIR POLLUTION; ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY; METEOROLOGY; CLIMATES; PROGRESS REPORT; 540110; 580000; BASIC STUDIES; GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Williams, A.L.. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report. United States: N. p., 1990. Web. doi:10.2172/10125550.
Williams, A.L.. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report. United States. doi:10.2172/10125550.
Williams, A.L.. 1990. "Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report". United States. doi:10.2172/10125550. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10125550.
@article{osti_10125550,
title = {Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report},
author = {Williams, A.L.},
abstractNote = {Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980`s became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.},
doi = {10.2172/10125550},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • A cooperative project to measure the chemistry and physics of convective storms was conducted during the period 1 May-30 June 1988 in an 80 km x 80 km area of east-central Illinois near Champaign-Urbana. An organization named the Cloud Chemistry and Cloud Physics Organization, or 3CPO, coordinated the project, which was hosted by the Illinois State Water Survey. To achieve the objectives, the following projects were undertaken and are described: a description of the sequential chemistry of rain experiment -- 1988; procedures for the analysis of aqueous hydrogen peroxide in rain samples collected during SECORE-88; preliminary data for SECORE-88; researchmore » summary report; a modified successive corrections method that meets statistical goals; dry deposition flux estimates for large-particle elements from dry-bucket measurements; spatial relationships between acid rain, air quality, and visibility data; and synthetic precipitation reference samples. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)« less
  • Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. (TEM)
  • A continued search for precipitation chemistry records from the past and their interpretation has failed to uncover a discernible trend toward increasing acidity in the United States. Data show current acidity levels, especially in the Northeast have not significantly changed, except for extreme climatological events, over the past 30 years. The more recent (1978 to present) and continuously collected samples from the MAP3S and NADP/NTN networks reveal great variability in wet acidic deposition but no significant trend over most of the United States. Studies of the apportionment of the ion species among various potential sources show that 4 major factorsmore » seem responsible for most of the wet deposition chemistry. These are agricultural practices, soil dust, salt (sea and/or road), and ions associated with pollutant gaseous precursors. Further, organic weak acids contribute to the overall acidity of samples with wide variations of the weak to strong acid across the United States. The bulk dry deposition from the NADP/NTN network has been analyzed. The distribution of key ions shows a spatial correlation suggesting real information content is contained in the data bank. These data should be more thoroughly researched and the results used to aide the establishment of a dry deposition monitoring network. Finally, the entire available data set was used to characterize the precipitation chemistry of the United States. It was found the 4 ions contribute 90 or more percent of the total ion concentration in the eastern United States. The 4 ions change between stations influenced by the oceans, and those influenced by continental sources. Hydrogen and sulfate are important in all regions while nitrate, ammonium, calcium, sodium, and chloride constitute the remaining 2 ions in specific regions. Proposed emission reduction strategies, if adopted, should significantly alter this characterization.« less
  • The relative spatial variability of atmospheric deposition was studied for sampling networks of various areas in the U.S., Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. The data were derived from event, monthly, and yearly sample collection periods. The results indicate the relative variability for precipitation, chemical concentration of constituents, and the deposition increase in that order. A factor analysis approach to interpretation of the role of aerosol in altering rainfall is presented. The results indicate that either aerosol does not influence rainfall amount, or a critical chemical component of the aerosol was not included in the analysis. Careful analyses were carried out, comparingmore » historical and current precipitation chemistry at Champaign-Urbana. The results show that the apparent high pH values of rainfall in 1954 were due to high values of calcium and magnesium and not due to low concentrations of sulfate and nitrogen species. New field efforts were initiated in 1978 in east-central Illinois to measure rain chemistry with improved precision over previous effort. The preliminary results from the first light rainshower show some puzzling relationships between the amount of rain and various chemical concentrations. The pH appears to be inversely related to rain volume, but other ionic species are not so easily identified with rain amount. The summer field experiment has, thus far, produced approximately 12 additional events which are in various stages of analysis. The study of the stability of ions in precipitation was continued and is the subject of additional proposed work. The results are very firm at this time, that either wet-only sampling must be carried out, or the sample must be preserved at 4/sup 0/C to retain the chemical integrity of the sample. It is recommended, however, that filtration of the sample be accomplished within 12 hours of the cessation of precipitation to ensure stability of the ionic composition.« less
  • The analysis of aerosol samples obtained in rural east-central Illinois reveals a seasonal maximum in SO/sub 4/ during May to July and a similar pattern for NH/sub 4/. The annual median SO/sub 4/ is about 1 to 1.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. In contrast to these ions, NO/sub 3/ displays highest values in the cold season. Soil-related species (Ca, K) seem to maximize in relation to farm tillage and harvesting practices. The NO/sub 3/ in recent precipitation samples over the northeast US increased between 1 and 2 times the values observed in the mid-1950's. A case study from SCORE-78 suggests that allmore » ion concentrations analyzed from sequentially collected samples decreased from the onset of rain to a minimum corresponding to the heaviest rain rates. Four groups of elements in 10 event rain samples were identified using factor analysis. The groups include soluble and insoluble crustal elements, soluble pollutant metals and sulfate, and insoluble pollutant metals. Utilizing the factor analysis approach, the St. Louis METROMEX precipitation chemistry data showed that the SO/sub 4/ deposition patterns group consistently with those of other soluble pollutants. Additional factor analysis efforts on the St. Louis rainwater data set revealed that soluble and insoluble concentrations of a given element have different deposition patterns suggesting that scavenging and/or precipitation formation processes dictate the patterns. An approach to managing the vast data base of rain chemistry used in the above studies is described. The software also examines the data for certain aspects of quality assurance. The procedures used to analyze ambient air filter samples are discussed.« less