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Title: Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

Abstract

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10124301
Report Number(s):
GA-A-21755
ON: DE95008138; BR: AT101014Z/AT1501024; TRN: AHC29509%%193
DOE Contract Number:
AC03-89ER52153
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Jan 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; TOKAMAK TYPE REACTORS; DIVERTORS; DESIGN; HEAT TRANSFER; COOLANTS; GALLIUM; COMPATIBILITY; THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR MATERIALS; STRESS ANALYSIS; SAFETY; 700420; PLASMA-FACING COMPONENTS

Citation Formats

Muraviev, E. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.2172/10124301.
Muraviev, E. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES. United States. doi:10.2172/10124301.
Muraviev, E. 1995. "Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES". United States. doi:10.2172/10124301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10124301.
@article{osti_10124301,
title = {Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES},
author = {Muraviev, E.},
abstractNote = {A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.},
doi = {10.2172/10124301},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1995,
month = 1
}

Technical Report:

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  • The paper represents an overview of the design study of a divertor system with liquid metal coolant (gallium) related to ARIES project. The work has been conducted by a group of specialists from Institute of Nuclear Fusion of Russian Scientific Center Kurchatov Institute within the scope of subcontract No. E212601 with General Atomics, San Diego, CA, USA. The key features of the proposed divertor design concept based on the specific LM coolant properties are as follows: (1) the requirement of the vacuum tightness of the divertor cooling tract is dismissed; (2) the pressurized coolant ducts can be separated from themore » plasma facing structure (PFS) elements which are subject to the thermal loads, and with this feature PFS can be replaced independently, without disturbing the cooling system; this is achieved with using free LM jets sprayed on the back side of the PFS elements, free LM film cooling and free LM draining under the action of gravity force. The divertor design has been developed formally as particularly applicable to ARIES-II reactor, the major reason for this being the choice of a vanadium-based alloy as the structural material compatible with gallium. Though there are some good prospects that carbon based materials including SiC-composite might be compatible with gallium as well. Then this concept could be used also in ARIES-IV and this possibility should be kept in mind for future.« less
  • In order to counter adverse effects resulting from the impingement of high energy plasmas on solid material surfaces, especially as this relates to fusion reactor high heat flux components, the idea of protecting the material surface with a thin film of liquid metal has been advanced. In principle, this film would protect the underlying substrate from physical sputtering and reduce thermal stresses in the structure. However, serious concerns related to establishing such a liquid metal flow and its performance in a fusion environment need to be addressed. In particular, the interaction of the conducting metal film with the complicated magneticmore » fields typical of a diverted reactor plasma may lead to retardation of the film resulting in channel flooding, velocity profiles not conducive to effective heat transfer, and possibly even detachment of the film from the substrate. In addition, the momentum carried by the plasma particles may deform the film shape to a significant extent, possibly disrupting the flow or leaving sections on the substrate inadequately protected. Proposed here are several mathematical and experimental models intended to address these specific questions. Mathematical models will be derived from the basic set of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations for the cases of fully developed and developing film flow. The fully developed flow model allows simplification of the governing equations to two dimensions, facilitating their solution. The data obtained from this formulation will yield the velocity, induced magnetic field, and height of the film as a function of space and flow parameters. From this data the effect of the plasma momentum on the shape of the surface will be seen, as will the velocity structure across the channel, a structure that is only assumed in previous modeling attempts. The developing film model, based on simplifying assumptions for the height and velocity profiles determined from the previous model for the fully developed case, will account for spatial and temporal varying magnetic fields. In this way it will be possible to model more fusion relevant field distributions and establish their effect on the evolution of the film and its possible flooding or detachment as it flows along the substrate.« less
  • This report provides a description of the statements submitted for the record to the committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the United States House of Representatives. These statements describe three principal areas of activity of the Advanced Reactor Technology Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). These areas are advanced fuel cycle technology, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology, and liquid metal-cooled reactor. The areas of automated reactor control systems, robotics, materials and structural design shielding and international cooperation were included in these statements describing the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's efforts in these areas. (FI)