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Title: A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll

Abstract

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A correspondingmore » uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10120927
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JC-115100; CONF-9307165-1
ON: DE94006403; TRN: 94:003598
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5. special plenary session of validation and model program research co-ordination (VAMP RCM) meeting,Vienna (Austria),5-9 Jul 1993; Other Information: PBD: Jul 1993
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; BIKINI; FALLOUT; MAN; RADIATION DOSES; FOOD CHAINS; CONTAMINATION; CESIUM 137; UPTAKE; STRONTIUM 90; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; 560101; 054000; DOSIMETRY AND MONITORING; HEALTH AND SAFETY

Citation Formats

Robison, W L, Bogen, K T, and Conrado, C L. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.2172/10120927.
Robison, W L, Bogen, K T, & Conrado, C L. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll. United States. doi:10.2172/10120927.
Robison, W L, Bogen, K T, and Conrado, C L. Thu . "A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll". United States. doi:10.2172/10120927. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10120927.
@article{osti_10120927,
title = {A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll},
author = {Robison, W L and Bogen, K T and Conrado, C L},
abstractNote = {On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.},
doi = {10.2172/10120927},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {7}
}