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Title: The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction

Abstract

If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issue through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are themore » large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MW{sub e} IFR capacity for every three MW{sub e} Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years).« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10108743
Report Number(s):
DOE/OR/00033-T466
ON: UN92004536
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76OR00033
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.); PBD: Aug 1991
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; IFR REACTOR; FEASIBILITY STUDIES; C CODES; MASS TRANSFER; POWER GENERATION; ACTINIDE BURNER REACTORS; THERMAL REACTORS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING; FLOW RATE; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; REACTOR SAFETY; COST ESTIMATION; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; PROLIFERATION; COMPUTER PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION; 210500; 220900; POWER REACTORS, BREEDING

Citation Formats

Hollaway, W.R. The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Hollaway, W.R. The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction. United States.
Hollaway, W.R. Thu . "The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_10108743,
title = {The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction},
author = {Hollaway, W.R.},
abstractNote = {If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issue through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are the large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MW{sub e} IFR capacity for every three MW{sub e} Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years).},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1991},
month = {Thu Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1991}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
Other availability
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  • If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issuemore » through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are the large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MW{sub e} IFR capacity for every three MW{sub e} Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years).« less
  • The mathematical modeling, simulation, and the control of a proposed hybrid energy system is discussed. The energy system which utilizes a combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed to supply electrical and thermal energy requirements of a rural village. The main objective of this work, however, is concerned with the development of a controller that maximizes the system's useful energy collection and delivery to the end user. The control method is based on a new concept which deals with the regulation of the solar cell temperature for the array's maximum power output. The control objective has been realized by simulating threemore » control models in which their respective performance and control energy expenditure has been tested with varying operating conditions. The control systems incorporate a conventional on-off controller, a suboptimal controller of the linear regulator type which solves the system dynamics for the control variables while minimizing a linear quadratic performance index, and a proportional controller that utilizes the natural behavior of the solar insolation for the production of the control energy. Results of the simulation studies indicate that the design objective has been achieved. The suboptimal controller has shown considerable performance improvement over the conventional controller in all simulated conditions, especially when cloud conditions prevail where as much as 42.21% improvement in system's useful electrical energy has been obtained.« less
  • A mathematical model was developed to provide a breeding description for fast reactors and symbiotic reactor systems by means of figures of merit type quantities. The model was used to investigate the effect of several parameters and different fuel usage strategies on the figures of merit which provide the breeding description. The integrated fuel cycle model for a single-reactor is reviewed. The excess discharge is automatically used to fuel identical reactors. The resulting model describes the accumulation of fuel in a system of identical reactors. Finite burnup and out-of-pile delays and losses are treated in the model. The model ismore » then extended from fast breeder park to symbiotic reactor systems. The asymptotic behavior of the fuel accumulation is analyzed. The asymptotic growth rate appears as the largest eigenvalue in the solution of the characteristic equations of the time dependent differential balance equations for the system. The eigenvector corresponding to the growth rate is the core equilibrium composition. The analogy of the long-term fuel cycle equations, in the framework of this model, and the neutron balance equations is explored. An eigenvalue problem adjoint to the one generated by the characteristic equations of the system is defined. The eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue, i.e. to the growth rate, represents the ''isotopic breeding worths.'' Analogously to the neutron adjoint flux it is shown that the isotopic breeding worths represent the importance of an isotope for breeding, i.e. for the growth rate of a system.« less
  • This thesis addresses four major goals. The first goal is to improve the state of information regarding industrial hazardous waste generation and management, forming a new empirical base for evaluating national waste reduction policy options. The second goal is to construct a theoretical systems analysis framework that captures the concerns of the current hazardous waste regulatory program in the US. The third goal is to apply the theoretical model and demonstrate how a target industry could respond to successively more stringent national policies of waste reduction. The final goal is to evaluate under the following criteria, options that would putmore » waste reduction goals into practice: protection of the environment and public health; costs to federal, state and local governments; industrial costs and financial implications; and institutional constraints. The first goal is met with the construction of two models based on operating and financial data collected at the industrial plant level. Four linear programming models are then proposed. The third goal is met by applying the theoretical linear programming model to the electroplating industry. Results are presented as waste reduction/industrial cost frontiers in 3-space. These response surfaces are then used to evaluate the trade-offs between waste reduction, annual industry-wide expenditures, and industry-wide capital formation requirements.« less