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Title: Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

Abstract

There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees` performance.more » Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10105687
Report Number(s):
BNL-60744; CONF-9410264-1
ON: DE95004231; TRN: 95:000789
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76CH00016
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: International conference on human factors research in nuclear power operation,Berlin (Germany),31 Oct - 2 Nov 1994; Other Information: PBD: [1995]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; SAFETY ANALYSIS; HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING; REACTOR SAFETY; HUMAN FACTORS; 220900; 290600; NUCLEAR ENERGY

Citation Formats

Haber, S B. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Haber, S B. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. United States.
Haber, S B. Sun . "Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10105687.
@article{osti_10105687,
title = {Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety},
author = {Haber, S B},
abstractNote = {There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees` performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10105687}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {12}
}

Conference:
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