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Title: Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

Abstract

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10102937
Report Number(s):
ORNL/M-2309
ON: DE93003663
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Aug 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; CERAMICS; COMMERCIALIZATION; HEAT ENGINES; MATERIALS; PLANNING; FABRICATION; SYNTHESIS; MACHINING; VEHICLES; AUTOMOBILES; 360201; 330603; PREPARATION AND FABRICATION; ENGINE SYSTEM

Citation Formats

Not Available. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/10102937.
Not Available. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines. United States. doi:10.2172/10102937.
Not Available. 1992. "Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines". United States. doi:10.2172/10102937. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10102937.
@article{osti_10102937,
title = {Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.},
doi = {10.2172/10102937},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includesmore » the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.« less
  • The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials researchmore » and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.« less
  • The primary goal of this research was to determine the effect of environment upon toughening and strength in commercially available transformation-toughened ceramics (partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (PSZ) and dispersion toughened Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (DTA)). Emphasis was on understanding the mechanism(s) responsible for environmentally induced strength degradation in the temperature range of 25 to 1050{degree}C. Dynamic fatigue techniques (four-point flexural strength as a function of stressing rate) were used in a three-phase plan to investigate fracture strength and slow crack growth in environments containing controlled amounts of water vapor. Similar measurements were also conducted in inert atmospheres (dry N{sub 2}) tomore » distinguish intrinsic effects from environmentally derived effects. In addition, the effects of aging (extended exposure at elevated temperatures and selected atmosphere conditions) on the candidate materials at low temperatures were studied. The activities pursued and the results obtained are described in this report. 40 refs., 53 figs., 22 tabs.« less
  • Three main types of zirconia toughened ceramics (ZTC) were investigated as potential candidates for heat engine applications, i.e. Mg-PSZ (MgO-Partially Stabilized Zirconia), Y-TZP (Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals), and ZTA (Zirconia Toughened Alumina). The powders were prepared either via chemical routes or by melting, rapid solidification, and wet milling. Hot isostatic pressing was used in the exploratory part of this program in order to quickly evaluate the potential of each composition without the necessity of optimizing the powder processing composition (Y-TZP) considerable effort was devoted to minimize foreign contaminants and processing flaws in order to improve the properties and themore » reliability of the ceramics. The Mg-PSZ ceramics could not be fabricated due to persistent cracking solidified (R/S) powders have met all objectives, except the strength and toughness at 1000/degree/C. We believe that the strength goal of 500 MPa at 1000/degree/C for pressureless sintered Y-TZP ceramics is attainable through improvements in processing, but the K/sub IC/ goal of 6 MPa. m/sup /1/2// at 1000/degree/C is unrealistic, in view of the lack of transformation toughening at high temperature. The ZTA ceramics have exhibited much better strength and toughness retention at high temperature, vis a vis the Y-TZP materials. These ceramics seem to possess the highest potential for meeting the program goals, but much more processing efforts are needed to optimize their microstructure and maximize their properties. Other advantages of the ZTA materials vs. the Y-TZPs are their lower cost and potentially better resistance to low temperature degradation in the 200--300/degree/C range. 29 refs., 36 figs., 21 tabs.« less
  • The Y-TZP material developed in Phase I of this ORNL/DOE contract was modified in its composition to give improved resistance to low temperature degradation without loss of strength and toughness. The variations in yttria between 4.69 and 5.52 w% produced little difference in strength in the ceramics measured between RT and 700{degree}C, nor was there any clear influence on toughness. The addition of 4.0 w% ceria together with 4.49 w% yttria, however did reduce the strength. No correlation between grain size and toughness was found although there was a strong correlation between either yttria concentration or grain size and themore » fracture surface monoclinic phase %. These results suggest that there may be another toughening mechanism in operation in addition to irreversible transformation toughening.« less