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Title: Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.

Abstract

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has the potential to greatly improve internal combustion engine performance through precise control of the injection rate, timing, and combustion of the fuel. A thorough characterization of the hydrodynamics of fuel injection has to come from a precise, quantitative analysis of the sprays, especially in the near-nozzle region. A lack of knowledge of the fuel-spray dynamics has severely limited computational modeling of the sprays and design of improved injection systems. Previously, the structure and dynamics of highly transient fuel sprays have never been visualized or reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) due to numerous technical difficulties. By using an ultrafast x-ray detector and intense monochromatic x-ray beams from synchrotron radiation, the fine structures and dynamics of 1-ms GDI fuel sprays from an outwardly opening nozzle were elucidated by a newly developed, ultrafast, microsecond computed microtomography (CT) technique. In a time-resolved manner, many detailed features associated with the transient fuel flows are readily observable in the quantitatively reconstructed 3D fuel spray density distribution as a result of the quantitative CT technique. More importantly, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model has also been performed using the boundary and initial conditions obtainedmore » from the experiment data. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement quantitatively. These results not only reveal the characteristics of the GDI fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but will also facilitate realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient, multiphase systems.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. (X-Ray Science Division)
  2. (
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1009328
Report Number(s):
ANL/XSD/58353
Journal ID: 0096-736-X; TRN: US1101422
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr.; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 4 ; 2007; Conference: Society of Automotive Engineers 2007 Fuels and Lubricants Meeting; Jul. 23, 2007 - Jul. 26, 2007; Kyoto, Japan
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; COMBUSTION; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DESIGN; DIMENSIONS; DISTRIBUTION; ENGINEERS; FINE STRUCTURE; FLUID MECHANICS; GASOLINE; HYDRODYNAMICS; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; LUBRICANTS; NOZZLES; OPENINGS; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TRANSIENTS

Citation Formats

Liu, X., Im, K-S, Wang, Y., Wang, J., Tate, M.W., Ercan, A., Schuette, D.R., Gruner, S.M., and Cornell Univ.). Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.4271/2007-01-1847.
Liu, X., Im, K-S, Wang, Y., Wang, J., Tate, M.W., Ercan, A., Schuette, D.R., Gruner, S.M., & Cornell Univ.). Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.. United States. doi:10.4271/2007-01-1847.
Liu, X., Im, K-S, Wang, Y., Wang, J., Tate, M.W., Ercan, A., Schuette, D.R., Gruner, S.M., and Cornell Univ.). Mon . "Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.". United States. doi:10.4271/2007-01-1847.
@article{osti_1009328,
title = {Ultrafast and quantitative X-tomography and simulation of hollow-cone gasoline direct-injection sprays.},
author = {Liu, X. and Im, K-S and Wang, Y. and Wang, J. and Tate, M.W. and Ercan, A. and Schuette, D.R. and Gruner, S.M. and Cornell Univ.)},
abstractNote = {Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has the potential to greatly improve internal combustion engine performance through precise control of the injection rate, timing, and combustion of the fuel. A thorough characterization of the hydrodynamics of fuel injection has to come from a precise, quantitative analysis of the sprays, especially in the near-nozzle region. A lack of knowledge of the fuel-spray dynamics has severely limited computational modeling of the sprays and design of improved injection systems. Previously, the structure and dynamics of highly transient fuel sprays have never been visualized or reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) due to numerous technical difficulties. By using an ultrafast x-ray detector and intense monochromatic x-ray beams from synchrotron radiation, the fine structures and dynamics of 1-ms GDI fuel sprays from an outwardly opening nozzle were elucidated by a newly developed, ultrafast, microsecond computed microtomography (CT) technique. In a time-resolved manner, many detailed features associated with the transient fuel flows are readily observable in the quantitatively reconstructed 3D fuel spray density distribution as a result of the quantitative CT technique. More importantly, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model has also been performed using the boundary and initial conditions obtained from the experiment data. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement quantitatively. These results not only reveal the characteristics of the GDI fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but will also facilitate realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient, multiphase systems.},
doi = {10.4271/2007-01-1847},
journal = {SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr.},
number = 4 ; 2007,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
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  • A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with {mu}s-temporalmore » resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. The time-dependent fuel density distribution revealed that the fuel jet is well broken up immediately at the nozzle exits. These results not only reveal the near-field characteristics of the partial atomized fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but also facilitate the development of an advanced multi-orifice direct injector. This ultrafast tomography capability also will facilitate the realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient and multiphase fuel spray systems.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • No abstract prepared.
  • An Eulerian model of evaporating transient sprays and a new method to describe air-atomization near the injector exit to predict the mean size and velocity of droplets have been developed to study the influence of operating conditions of an air-assist hollow-cone injector and the influence of fuel atomization on the spray structure. Good agreement between the results of the computation and experiment in terms of spray shape has been achieved. The numerical results show the typical structure of sprays from the air-assisted fuel injector and show the influence of atomization on the structure.
  • Abstract not provided.