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Title: A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

Abstract

Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in themore » 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to 90%) from (typically lower than) those based on the extractive techniques. However, the ORS techniques were useful in providing non-intrusive real-time measurements of gaseous species in the exhaust plume, which warrants further development. The results obtained in this program validate sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile PM aircraft emissions as described in the SAE AIR-6037.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
1003745
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Environment; Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 38
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACETYLENE; AIR QUALITY; AIRCRAFT; ALKANES; CARBON; CARBON DIOXIDE; CARBON MONOXIDE; ENGINES; ETHYLENE; FORMALDEHYDE; NITROGEN OXIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PARTICULATES; POLLUTANTS; PROPYLENE; REMOTE SENSING; SAMPLING; SULFUR DIOXIDE; CLIMATIC CHANGE; ultrafine; military aircraft; turbine engine; hazardous air pollutants

Citation Formats

Cheng, Mengdawn, and Corporan, E. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.033.
Cheng, Mengdawn, & Corporan, E. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES. United States. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.033.
Cheng, Mengdawn, and Corporan, E. Fri . "A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES". United States. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.033.
@article{osti_1003745,
title = {A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES},
author = {Cheng, Mengdawn and Corporan, E.},
abstractNote = {Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to 90%) from (typically lower than) those based on the extractive techniques. However, the ORS techniques were useful in providing non-intrusive real-time measurements of gaseous species in the exhaust plume, which warrants further development. The results obtained in this program validate sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile PM aircraft emissions as described in the SAE AIR-6037.},
doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.033},
journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
number = 38,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2010},
month = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2010}
}
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