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Title: Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd 0.9Zn 0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers

Abstract

High-quality, large (10 cm long and 2.5 cm diameter), nuclear spectrometer grade Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) single crystals have been grown by a controlled vertical Bridgman technique using in-house zone refined precursor materials (Cd, Zn, and Te). A state-of-the-art computer model, multizone adaptive scheme for transport and phase-change processes (MASTRAP), is used to model heat and mass transfer in the Bridgman growth system and to predict the stress distribution in the as-grown CZT crystal and optimize the thermal profile. The model accounts for heat transfer in the multiphase system, convection in the melt, and interface dynamics. The grown semi-insulating (SI) CZT crystals have demonstrated promising results for high-resolution room-temperature radiation detectors due to their high dark resistivity ({rho} {approx} 2.8 x 10{sup 11} {Theta} cm), good charge-transport properties, electron and hole mobility-life-time product, {mu}{tau}{sub e} {approx} (2-5) x 10{sup -3} and {mu}{tau}{sub h} {approx} (3-5) x 10{sup -5} respectively, and low cost of production. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical transmission measurements were carried out on the grown CZT crystals using two-modulator generalized ellipsometry (2-MGE). The refractive index n and extinction coefficient k were determined by mathematically eliminating the {approx}3-nm surface roughness layer. Nuclear detection measurements on the single-element CZT detectors withmore » {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs clearly detected 59.6 and 662 keV energies with energy resolution (FWHM) of 2.4 keV (4.0%) and 9.2 keV (1.4%), respectively.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. EIC Laboratories, Inc.
  2. State University of New York, Stony Brook
  3. Fisk University, Nashville, TN
  4. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1003604
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Electronic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0361--5235
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CHARGE TRANSPORT; COMPUTERS; CONVECTION; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DETECTION; ELECTRONS; ELLIPSOMETRY; ENERGY RESOLUTION; HEAT TRANSFER; MASS TRANSFER; MONOCRYSTALS; PRECURSOR; RADIATION DETECTORS; REFRACTIVE INDEX; ROUGHNESS; SPECTROMETERS; TRANSPORT

Citation Formats

Mandal, Krishna, Kang, Sung Hoon, Choi, Michael, Bello, Job, Zheng, Lili, Zhang, Hui, Groza, Michael, Roy, Utpal N., Burger, Arnold, Jellison, Jr, Gerald Earle, Holcomb, David Eugene, Wright, Gomez W, and Williams, Joseph A. Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1007/s11664-006-0250-6.
Mandal, Krishna, Kang, Sung Hoon, Choi, Michael, Bello, Job, Zheng, Lili, Zhang, Hui, Groza, Michael, Roy, Utpal N., Burger, Arnold, Jellison, Jr, Gerald Earle, Holcomb, David Eugene, Wright, Gomez W, & Williams, Joseph A. Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-006-0250-6
Mandal, Krishna, Kang, Sung Hoon, Choi, Michael, Bello, Job, Zheng, Lili, Zhang, Hui, Groza, Michael, Roy, Utpal N., Burger, Arnold, Jellison, Jr, Gerald Earle, Holcomb, David Eugene, Wright, Gomez W, and Williams, Joseph A. Sun . "Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-006-0250-6.
@article{osti_1003604,
title = {Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers},
author = {Mandal, Krishna and Kang, Sung Hoon and Choi, Michael and Bello, Job and Zheng, Lili and Zhang, Hui and Groza, Michael and Roy, Utpal N. and Burger, Arnold and Jellison, Jr, Gerald Earle and Holcomb, David Eugene and Wright, Gomez W and Williams, Joseph A},
abstractNote = {High-quality, large (10 cm long and 2.5 cm diameter), nuclear spectrometer grade Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) single crystals have been grown by a controlled vertical Bridgman technique using in-house zone refined precursor materials (Cd, Zn, and Te). A state-of-the-art computer model, multizone adaptive scheme for transport and phase-change processes (MASTRAP), is used to model heat and mass transfer in the Bridgman growth system and to predict the stress distribution in the as-grown CZT crystal and optimize the thermal profile. The model accounts for heat transfer in the multiphase system, convection in the melt, and interface dynamics. The grown semi-insulating (SI) CZT crystals have demonstrated promising results for high-resolution room-temperature radiation detectors due to their high dark resistivity ({rho} {approx} 2.8 x 10{sup 11} {Theta} cm), good charge-transport properties, electron and hole mobility-life-time product, {mu}{tau}{sub e} {approx} (2-5) x 10{sup -3} and {mu}{tau}{sub h} {approx} (3-5) x 10{sup -5} respectively, and low cost of production. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical transmission measurements were carried out on the grown CZT crystals using two-modulator generalized ellipsometry (2-MGE). The refractive index n and extinction coefficient k were determined by mathematically eliminating the {approx}3-nm surface roughness layer. Nuclear detection measurements on the single-element CZT detectors with {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs clearly detected 59.6 and 662 keV energies with energy resolution (FWHM) of 2.4 keV (4.0%) and 9.2 keV (1.4%), respectively.},
doi = {10.1007/s11664-006-0250-6},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1003604}, journal = {Journal of Electronic Materials},
issn = {0361--5235},
number = 6,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {1}
}