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Title: LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES

Abstract

A low temperature plasma etching process for patterning copper interconnects is proposed as a solution to the size effect issue in the resistivity of copper. Key features of this etching process based on a previous thermochemical analysis of the Cu-Cl-H system are discussed. Potential benefits of a subtractive etching scheme based on this process in comparison with the damascene scheme for copper-based interconnect processing in sub-100 nm features are presented in the context of the ITRS roadmap. Preliminary experimental work on plasma etching of Cu thin films using the proposed process is discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. Georgia Institute of Technology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1003523
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2006 Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, 20060417, 20060421
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COPPER; ETCHING; PLASMA; PROCESSING; THIN FILMS; plasma; copper; size effects; thin films

Citation Formats

Kulkarni, Nagraj S, Tamirisa, Prabhakar, Levitin, Galit, Kasica, Richard J, and Hess, Dennis W. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Kulkarni, Nagraj S, Tamirisa, Prabhakar, Levitin, Galit, Kasica, Richard J, & Hess, Dennis W. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES. United States.
Kulkarni, Nagraj S, Tamirisa, Prabhakar, Levitin, Galit, Kasica, Richard J, and Hess, Dennis W. Sun . "LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1003523,
title = {LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES},
author = {Kulkarni, Nagraj S and Tamirisa, Prabhakar and Levitin, Galit and Kasica, Richard J and Hess, Dennis W},
abstractNote = {A low temperature plasma etching process for patterning copper interconnects is proposed as a solution to the size effect issue in the resistivity of copper. Key features of this etching process based on a previous thermochemical analysis of the Cu-Cl-H system are discussed. Potential benefits of a subtractive etching scheme based on this process in comparison with the damascene scheme for copper-based interconnect processing in sub-100 nm features are presented in the context of the ITRS roadmap. Preliminary experimental work on plasma etching of Cu thin films using the proposed process is discussed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • The patterning of the wafer during microelectronics fabrication can have a significant effect on bulk plasma properties as well as producing local pattern dependent etch rates. Sputtering of photoresist, loading effects, and other surface interactions couple the chemistry at the wafer surface to the bulk plasma chemistry. A model has been developed which uses a Monte Carlo simulation to model quasi-steady state die scale surface chemistry in plasma etching reactors. This model is integrated within the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) which resolves two-dimensional reactor scale plasma conditions. The HPEM consists of an electromagnetics, electron Monte Carlo simulation, and amore » fluid plasma modules. The surface Monte Carlo simulation is used to modify the flux boundary condition at the wafer surface within the HPEM. Species which react on the surface, or which are created at the surface are tracked on and near the wafer surface.this gives a quasi-steady state surface chemistry reaction mechanism resolved in two dimensions on the die scale. An inductively coupled etching reactor is used to demonstrate the effect of surface chemistry on bulk plasma conditions over a range of pressures from 10 to 100 mtorr, 100`s w of inductively coupled power and 10`s to 100`s V rf applied substrate voltage. Under high etch rate conditions, macroloading effects are shown. As pressure is varied from 10 to 100 mtorr and the effect of local photoresist sputter and redeposit on nearby exposed etch area is shown to increase which leads to different etch rates near the boundaries of etching regions versus unexposed regions.« less
  • Four different methods for measuring ultrafine particle size distributions in the 3-10-nm particle diameter range are compared and discussed. These methods all use an ultrafine condensation particle counter (TSI Inc. Model 3025 or its prototype) as the detector, but use different approaches to determine the size of the particles counted. Size classification was achieved using a Hauke Model VIE-06 differential mobility analyzer, a specially configured TSI Model 3040S diffusion battery, an ultrafine condensation particle counter with a variable condenser temperature, and an ultrafine condensation particle counter with a pulse height analyzer for signals produced by the optical detector. The responsemore » of these systems to ultrafine particles of known size and composition was studied during a workshop held in Lund, Sweden, during July 1991. After this workshop, measurements of ultrafine particles were made on the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the International Arctic Ocean Expedition 1991 (August 1, 1991 through October 7, 1991). In this article, the results of these laboratory and field measurements are discussed. The strengths and limitations of these measurement methods are emphasized. 30 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO{sub 2} films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO{sub 2} thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on (100) Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniformmore » and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the (100) substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve.« less
  • The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO{sub 2} films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO{sub 2} thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on [100] Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniformmore » and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the [100] substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve.« less
  • We have studied the effects of source and bias powers, pressure, and feed gas composition on the shapes of SiO{sub 2}-masked crystalline silicon features etched in a transformer-coupled high density plasma system. Higher etching rates were obtained at higher source and bias powers, and higher pressure. The etching rates of isolated and nested trenches, isolated lines, and holes were nearly the same, indicating a negligible pattern density dependence. We did, however, observe a very weak decrease in etch rates with increasing aspect ratio at 2 mTorr in a pure Cl{sub 2} plasma. At 10 mTorr, no aspect ratio dependence wasmore » observed, except at the highest source and bias powers. Microtrenching was observed under certain plasma conditions and could be reduced by using higher bias powers. At 10 mTorr in a pure chlorine plasma, we observed a slight taper at the bottoms of the etched features and the formation of narrow microtrenches near feature corners. At 2 mTorr, the microtrenches were broader and overlapped near the center of narrow trenches to form pyramid-shaped trench bottoms. When a HBr plasma was used instead of Cl{sub 2}, the etching rate decreased by 50{percent} but the etching profiles were more vertical and the trench bottoms were flat. Isolated lines etched in the HBr plasma, however, revealed broad but shallow microtrenches near the edges of the line, suggesting that the flat trench bottoms were a result of broad microtrenches that overlapped. Trenches of 3 {mu}m depth and aspect ratios of 7 have been obtained using either HBr or Cl{sub 2}, exhibiting similar microfeatures as observed when etching shallower trenches. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}« less