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Title: Quantitative Mapping of Switching Behavior in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

Abstract

The application of ferroelectric materials for nonvolatile memory and ferroelectric data storage necessitates quantitative studies of local switching characteristics and their relationship to material microstructure and defects. Switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM) is developed as a quantitative tool for real-space imaging of imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and domain nucleation voltage on the nanoscale. Examples of SS-PFM implementation, data analysis, and data visualization are presented for epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films and polycrystalline PZT ceramics. Several common artifacts related to the measurement method, environmental factors, and instrument settings are analyzed.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1003336
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 77; Journal Issue: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Quantitative Mapping of Switching Behavior in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2214699.
Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, & Kalinin, Sergei V. Quantitative Mapping of Switching Behavior in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2214699.
Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, and Kalinin, Sergei V. Sun . "Quantitative Mapping of Switching Behavior in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2214699.
@article{osti_1003336,
title = {Quantitative Mapping of Switching Behavior in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy},
author = {Jesse, Stephen and Lee, Ho Nyung and Kalinin, Sergei V},
abstractNote = {The application of ferroelectric materials for nonvolatile memory and ferroelectric data storage necessitates quantitative studies of local switching characteristics and their relationship to material microstructure and defects. Switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM) is developed as a quantitative tool for real-space imaging of imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and domain nucleation voltage on the nanoscale. Examples of SS-PFM implementation, data analysis, and data visualization are presented for epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films and polycrystalline PZT ceramics. Several common artifacts related to the measurement method, environmental factors, and instrument settings are analyzed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2214699},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 7,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Dynamic switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy is developed to separate thermodynamic and kinetic effects in local bias-induced phase transitions. The approaches for visualization and analysis of 5D data are discussed. The spatial and voltage variability of relaxation behavior of the a-c domain lead zirconate-titanate surface suggest the interpretation in terms of surface charge dynamics. This approach is applicable to local studies of dynamic behavior in any system with reversible bias-induced phase transitions ranging from ferroelectrics and multiferroics to ionic systems such as Li-ion and oxygen-ion conductors in batteries, fuel cells, and electroresistive systems.
  • Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy (PFS) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing polarization dynamics on the nanoscale. Application of a dc bias to a nanoscale probe in contact with a ferroelectric surface results in the nucleation and growth of a ferroelectric domain below the probe apex. The latter affects local electromechanical response detected by the probe. Resulting hysteresis loop contains information on local ferroelectric switching. The self-consistent analysis of the PFS data requires (a) deriving the thermodynamic parameters of domain nucleation and (b) establishing the relationships between domain parameters and PFM signal. Here, we analyze the early stages of switchingmore » processes and the effect of screening on the surface and at the domain wall on local polarization reversal mechanism. It is shown that the screening control both the domain nucleation activation energy and hysteresis loop saturation rate.« less
  • The application of ferroelectric materials for electronic devices necessitates the quantitative study of local switching behavior, including imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and work of switching. Here we introduce switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy as a tool for real-space imaging of switching properties on the nanoscale. The hysteresis curves, acquired at each point in the image, are analyzed in the thermodynamic and kinetic limits. We expect that this approach will further understanding of the relationships between material microstructure and polarization switching phenomena on the nanoscale, and provide a quantitative tool for ferroelectric-based device characterization.
  • Nanoscale polarization switching in ferroelectric materials by piezoresponse force microscopy in weak and strong indentation limits is analyzed using exact solutions for coupled electroelastic fields under the tip. Tip-induced domain switching is mapped on the Landau theory of phase transitions, with domain size as an order parameter. For a point charge interacting with a ferroelectric surface, switching by both first and the second order processes is possible, depending on the charge-surface separation. For a realistic tip, the domain nucleation process is first order in charge magnitude and polarization switching occurs only above a certain critical tip bias. In pure ferroelectricmore » or ferroelastic switching, the late stages of the switching process can be described using a point charge model and arbitrarily large domains can be created. However, description of domain nucleation and the early stages of growth process when the domain size is comparable with the tip curvature radius (weak indentation) or the contact radius (strong indentation) requires the exact field structure. For higher order ferroic switching (e.g., ferroelectroelastic), the domain size is limited by the tip-sample contact area, thus allowing precise control of domain size.« less