skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

Abstract

This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  2. NON LANL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1000755
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-07-0352
TRN: US201101%%539
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL & WATER RESOURCES CONGRESS ; 200705 ; TAMPA
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54; FLOODS; FLOW MODELS; PERFORMANCE; RUNOFF; SOILS; VALIDATION; WATER RESOURCES

Citation Formats

KALYANAPU, ALFRED, MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N., and BURIAN, STEVEN J. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
KALYANAPU, ALFRED, MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N., & BURIAN, STEVEN J. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL. United States.
KALYANAPU, ALFRED, MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N., and BURIAN, STEVEN J. Wed . "GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1000755.
@article{osti_1000755,
title = {GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL},
author = {KALYANAPU, ALFRED and MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. and BURIAN, STEVEN J.},
abstractNote = {This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Wed Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • This report presents the development of a numerical model simulating water flow and contaminant and sediment transport in watershed systems of one-dimensional river/stream network, two-dimensional overland regime, and three-dimensional subsurface media. The model is composed of two modules: flow and transport. Three options are provided in modeling the flow module in river/ stream network and overland regime: the kinematic wave approach, diffusion wave approach, and dynamic wave approach. The kinematic and diffusion wave approaches are known to be numerically robust in terms of numerical convergency and stability; i.e., they can generate convergent and stable simulations over a wide range ofmore » ground surface slopes in the entire watershed. The question is the accuracy of these simulations. The kinematic wave approach usually produces accurate solutions only over the region of steep slopes. The diffusion wave approach normally gives accurate solutions over the region of mild to steep slopes. However, neither approach has the ability to yield accurate solutions over the region of small slopes, in which the inertial forces are no longer negligible compared to the gravitational forces. The kinematic wave approach cannot address the problems of backwater effects. On the other hand, a dynamic wave approach, having included all forces, can theoretically have the potential to generate accurate simulations over all ranges of slopes in a watershed. The subsurface flow is described by Richard`s equation where water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media is accounted for.« less
  • Most automobiles are used predominantly at low and mid-range engine speeds, where a large part of total engine friction is due to valve friction. Use of a roller rocker arm can substantially reduce this valve friction. Mitsubishi Motors has developed the world's first needle roller-type aluminum rocker arm, now used in the Debonair supercharged V-6 engine which went on sale in the spring of 1987. This article describes the construction, characteristics, and effects of the roller rocker arm with regard to engine friction.
  • Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated applicationmore » of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data.« less
  • This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas.more » The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.« less
  • Models incorporating interactions between surface and subsurface flow are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. In these models the subsurface and surface domains are linked via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in the field, a more general coupled modeling approach would be preferable. We present a more general approach that incorporatesmore » a two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variably saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow developed at LLNL. This overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper, free-surface boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism of ParFlow, which is exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The usefulness of our approach is demonstrated in an application of the model to an urban watershed. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow and transport is also examined. The results show the uncertainty in flow and transport predictions due to heterogeneity. This is important in determining, for example, total maximum daily loads of surface water systems.« less