Patents – Eugene P. Wigner

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US 2,872,401 JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT – Wigner, E. P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E. C.; Feb 3, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

US 2,873,243 MEANS FOR SHIELDING AND COOLING REACTORS – Wigner, E. P.; Ohlinger, L. A.; Young, G. J.; Weinberg, A. M.; Feb 10, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Reactors of the water-cooled type and a means for shielding such a reactor to protect operating personnel from harmful radiation are discussed. In this reactor coolant tubes which contain the fissionable material extend vertically through a mass of moderator. Liquid coolant enters through the bottom of the coolant tubes and passes upwardly over the fissionable material. A shield tank is disposed over the top of the reactor and communicates through its bottom with the upper end of the coolant tubes. A hydrocarbon shielding fluid floats on the coolant within the shield tank. With this arrangement the upper face of the reactor can be opened to the atmosphere through the two superimposed liquid layers. A principal feature of the invention is that, in the event radioactive fission products enter the coolant stream, imposed layer of hydrocarbon reduces the intense radioactivity introduced into the layer over the reactors and permits removal of the offending fuel material by personnel shielded by the uncontaminated hydrocarbon layer.

US 2,874,307 REACTOR SHIELD – Wigner, E. P.; Ohlinger, L. E.; Young, G. J.; Weinberg, A. M.; Feb 17, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

US 2,886,503 JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS – Szilard, L.; Wigner, E. P.; Creutz, E. C.; May 12, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

US 2,890,158 NEUTRONIC REACTOR – Ohlinger, L. A.; Wigner, E. P.; Weinberg, A. M.; Young, G. J.; Jun 1, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A means of cooling reactor fuel as it is discharged from the reactor is described. (T.R.H.)

US 2,910,418 NEUTRONIC REACTOR – Creutz, E. C.; Ohlinger, L. A.; Weinberg, A. M.; Wigner, E. P.; Young, G. J.; Oct 27, 1959 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

US 2,928,781 A COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR – Wigner, E. P.; Creutz, E. C.; Mar 15, 1960 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A nuclear reactor comprising a pair of graphite blocks separated by an air gap is described. Each of the blocks contains a plurality of channels extending from the gap through the block with a plurality of fuel elements being located in the channels. Means are provided for introducing air into the gap between the graphite blocks and for exhausting the air from the ends of the channels opposite the gap.

US 2,954,335 NEUTRONIC REACTOR – Wigner, E. P.; Sep 27, 1960 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A unit assembly is described for a neutronic reactor comprising a tube and plurality of spaced parallel sandwiches in the tube extending lengthwise thereof, each sandwich including a middle plate having a central opening for plutonium and other openings for fertile material at opposite ends of the plate.

US 2,961,392 NEUTRONIC REACTORS – Wigner, E. P.; Nov 22, 1960 (to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal-neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.


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